- Slides: 33
The Land of Palestine Holy Land for three major world religions: – Christianity – Judaism – Islam
Palestine was part of the Arab Empire from 700 to 1500
Then, Palestine was taken over and then ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1500 to 1918
“Palestine is located right in the middle of the Arab world”
In 1917 -1918 the Ottoman Empire collapsed as a result of WWI, and the Arab parts were taken over by Britain and France as ‘Protectorates’. This was not what the Arab soldiers who had supported Britain in World War I had expected. They felt betrayed, but worse was to come.
Balfour Declaration (1917) “His Majesty’s Government views with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people and will use their best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine…” Sir Arthur James Balfour Br. Foreign Secretary
Once Britain took over control of Palestine, the number of Jewish settlers increased dramatically. They settled in the yellow areas marked on the map. The Arabs felt they were losing their country.
Jewish “Aliyahs” § Aliyah is a Hebrew word that means “Ascent” Name First Aliyah Dates 1882 -1903 Immigration Second Aliyah 1904 -1914 40, 000 Third Aliyah 1919 -1923 40, 000 Fourth Aliyah 1924 -1929 82, 000 Fifth Aliyah 1929 -1939 250, 000 Aliyah Bet (Illegal) 1933 -1948 110, 000 35, 000
Arab Revolts (1936 -1939) In 1936, the Arabs living in Palestine revolt against the British rule and Jewish immigration into the region. The Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin al. Hussani, with Adolf Hitler.
Civil War 1945 -1947 The British are fighting the Jewish militia. Question………. ? Jewish “Freedom Fighters” or “Terrorists”?
The United Nations February 1947 Ernest Bevin British Politician “Turn the whole %#*#^! problem over to the United Nations!” Result: UNSCOP (United Nations Special Committee on Palestine) creates a two state plan!
Instead of accepting the U. N. partition plan……… Israel Declares Independence May 14, 1948 David Ben-Gurion 1 st Prime Minister of Israel Arab reaction leads to……. .
The 1948 War May 15, 1948 to Feb. 1949 • 15 Arab armies invade Israel • Armistice ends war • Israeli land increase by 21% • Syria takes Golan Hts and Egypt the Gaza Strip
Palestinian Refugees “Palestinian Diaspora” 900, 000 Arabs flee!
Suez Crisis (Oct. -Nov. 1956) Gamal Abdul Nasser Leader of Egypt • Egypt nationalizes canal upsetting Britain & France • Britain & France convince Israel to invade Egypt • Israel invades and seizes Gaza Strip & Sinai Peninsula
Palestine Liberation Organization (May 28, 1964) Arab Strategy Changes: • Instead of waging war…. . • Wage small guerilla attacks “To liberate Palestine via an armed struggle and guerilla movement” Yasir Arafat Leader of the PLO
Six-Day War (June 5 -10, 1967) • Egypt (Nasser) supports Arab world; blockades Gulf of Aqaba • Syria mobilizes army along Israel’s border • Israel attacks Egypt and Syria in response • Result: Israel gains Sinai Peninsula, Gaza Strip, Suez Canal, Jerusalem, Golan Heights, and the West Bank
U. N. Resolution 242 (Nov. 22, 1967) “Land for Peace” • Israel will give back land for recognition from the Arab world • Agree to withdraw from land gained in Six Day War • Outcome: • Egypt, Lebanon, & Jordan accept • Syria DOES NOT! c e j e R ! d e t
Yom-Kippur War (October 6 -25 1973) • Egypt and Syria attack Israel • Israel counter-attacks and wins more land
U. N. Resolution 338 (Oct. 1973) “Land for Recognitio ! d e t • Ended Yom Kippur War p e c c A • Conditions: 1. Israel will give back land gained in previous wars 2. Egypt, Lebanon, Jordan, and Syria recognize Israel * Same stipulations as U. N. Resolution 242
Camp David Accords -talks begin: September 1978 -accords signed: March 1979 • Framework for Peace Settlement • Israeli settlements removed • Israel leave Sinai to multinational force President Anwar Sadat of Egypt President Jimmy Carter of the U. S. Prime Minister Menachem Begin Of Israel
First Lebanon War (June 6 -September 1982) • PLO and Hezbollah launch guerrilla attacks into Israel from Lebanon • Israel invades Lebanon • Results: PLO flees, enormous suffering, support for PLO grows
Palestinian Intifada-Part I (1987 -1993) • Violent uprisings by Palestinian refugees against Israeli settlements The Rise of Hamas as Islamic Resistance!
The Oslo Accords (September 1993) • Israel grants self-government to Palestinians in West Bank & Gaza • PLO recognizes Israel as a sovereign nation Foreign Minister Shimon Peres of Israel President Bill Clinton of the U. S. PLO Leader Yasir Arafat of Palestine
Operation Defensive Shield (March 29 -May 3, 2002) • Large scale Israeli military operation to stop Palestinian terrorist attacks during 2 nd Intifada • Israel re-occupies lands given up by Oslo Accords
Roadmap to Peace (April 2003) • U. S. , Russia, E. U. , and U. N. joint peace plan for the conflict • Three Steps: • Palestinians dismantle terrorist groups • Israel withdraws from Palestinian lands & stop settlement building • Re-new negotiations to create Palestinian states after making reforms Prime Minister Mahmoud Abbas of Palestine President George H. W. Bush of the U. S. Prime Minister Ariel Sharon of Israel
Second Lebanon War (July 12 - August 14 2006) • Hezbollah (Islamic militant group) launches rocket attacks into Israel from Lebanon • Reaction: Israel invades Lebanon (34 day conflict) U. N. intervenes & conflict ends
The Conflict in Recent Times Sept. 2007 May 2008 Operation Orchard: Israel bombs suspected Syrian nuclear complex Treaty talks between Israel/Syria; 6 month cease-fire (Hamas & Israel)
The Gaza War (Dec. 2008 to January 2009) • 3 -week armed conflict between Israel and Palestinian/Hamas • Israeli Aim: - stop rocket attacks from Gaza Strip into Israel - stop arms imports into Gaza Strip
The Gaza Flotilla Incident (May 31, 2010) • Six ships led by activists from the Free Gaza Movement sail from Turkey to Gaza with what they claim is humanitarian aid • Israeli commando storm ship looking for weapons • Outcome: - 9 activists killed - 10 commandos hurt - widespread condemnation of Israel for raid - U. N. investigation
Territory of the Palestinian National Authority as of 2012…. . Peace Talks Continue! The West Bank The Gaza Strip