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The Italian Renaissance Chapter 5 section 1
Italian City States • Renaissance: A rebirth or revival. Also : The humanistic revival of classical art, architecture, literature, and learning that originated in Italy in the 14 th century and later spread throughout Europe. A period from about 1350 until 1600. * Europeans began to rediscover ancient Greek and Roman texts, philosophy and knowledge
Italian City States cont’d • Background: During the Renaissance. Italy was not unified, it was made up of independent “city states” which included: Milan, Venice, Rome, Florence, Pisa, Genoa and Mantua and the Kingdom of the 2 Sicilies. • Three leading city states were Florence, Rome and Venice. • New social order sprang up, wealth and ability determined social class more than noble titles and land ownership. Wealthy merchants and bankers replaced the landed nobility in the upper class.
Italian City States
Humanism • Started in the city states of Italy, which had remained important trading centers through the end of the late Middle Ages, through trade ties info was exchanged…Through merchants, Italian scholars reacquired ancient “lost” wisdom, learning and philosophical ideas. • The “lost” info came primarily from the Byzantine Empire which had kept the Ancient Greek writings and knowledge intact
• Humanism: new intellectual movement that focused on secular (worldly) themes rather than just on religious ideas that had been popular during the Middle Ages
Renaissance Man • Humanists: Scholars who promoted humanism and accepted classical beliefs and wanted to use them to renew (improve) their own society. • Stressed individualism, promoted individual self worth and learning. Importance of people developing their own talents through many activities and education.
Renaissance Man • Men learned Latin, Greek, studied fencing, politics, dance, philosophy and the Greek classics. Women studied music, dance, courtly behavior and how to run a household. • Clergy are replaced by humanists as teachers
Italian Renaissance Writers • 1300 s: Francesco Petracha (commonly called Petrach) wrote sonnets (short poems) focusing on love and personal feelings. (Mostly about a girl named Laura who died during the Black Plague)
• Benvenuto Cellini wrote a manual called: “The Book of the Courtier”, gave advice to men and women on Renaissance life. Ideal of good behavior. Men to be skilled in many activities, women to be graceful, attractive and courteous.
• Niccolo Machiavelli: Wrote “The Prince” a how to guide on Italian politics (use deceit and force as needed to hold on to power!)
Artists of the Italian Renaissance
Artists of the Italian Renaissance • Michelangelo, based in Florence: Created sculpture of David between 1501 and 1504, also painted the Sistine Chapel (fin. In 1512), greatest wall painting in Italy (10, 000 sq. ft. ), designed the dome of St. Peter’s Basilica to end his career.
• Leonardo da Vinci: Citizen of Florence, worked also in Milan and Rome. Painted the Mona Lisa in Florence in 1503; painted Last Supper and also had talent in engineering, architecture and sculpture.
• Raphael Santi: famous painter, noted for his paintings of Mary, painted for the Vatican.
Other Italian Renaissance Contributions • Warfare: Mercenaries (Condottieri) hired to fight for city states, first large scale use of devoted professional armies…(the citizen soldiers are replaced because using them in armies hurt a city state’s business and profits!)
• Increased use of gunpowder promotes decline in armor and results in development of long thin “fashionable” gentleman swords called rapiers • Italian fencing masters train gentlemen in Italian version of sword play across Europe.
Other Italian Renaissance Contributions • Architecture: changed from soaring GOTHIC cathedrals and spires back to classical columns, arches and domes (ie: St Peter’s Basilica)
• Rise of a wealthy, educated and expanding MIDDLE Class consisting of merchants, bankers, lawyers • Rise in exchange of ideas across Europe. City States began sending out ambassadors and created agreements, copied across N. Europe
Final Cut: Leonardo’s Last Supper