- Slides: 101
THE INTER-TESTAMENTAL PERIOD 400 Years of History in Ten Minutes
LIFE UNDER THE GREEKS • Alexander the Great dies in 323 BC • His empire is divided among his general • Israel is caught between w Ptolemy in the south (Egypt) w Seleucids in the north (Syria) • Greek culture has powerful influence, leading to translation of OT into Greek w The Septuagint (LXX)
LIFE UNDER THE GREEKS • 198 BC, the Seleucids defeated the Ptolemies and gained control of Judah, but not Egypt. • The Seleucids were determined to “civilize” the people of Judah.
ANITIOCHUS IV • 175 B. C. , Antiochus IV, Epiphanies (the illustrious one). • The Jews called him “Epimanes” (the madman). • Antiochus looked upon orthodox Judaism as an obstacle to the unification of his empire.
ANITIOCHUS IV • He looked upon the office of high priest as a political office. w A Benjaminite named Melanus pays money to become High Priest. w The orthodox Jews were infuriated. • Antiochus attacks Egypt. w Almost won, but was defeated by the Romans.
ANITIOCHUS IV • Antiochus takes his anger out on Israel. w He sent his army to attack the orthodox Jews on the Sabbath. w He decreed that Greek deities were to be worshipped. w He put a statue of Zeus in the Temple and sacrificed a pig on the altar. w He held drunken orgies to the god Bacchus and forced attendance.
ANITIOCHUS IV • Antiochus takes his anger out on Israel. w He forbid the Jews to practice circumcision on the threat of death. w The Sabbath was forbidden. w The observance of Jewish feasts was forbidden. w Copies of the Scriptures were burned.
THE MACCABEES • 165 BC, An aged priest, named Mattathias, was commanded to offer a sacrifice to Zeus at the town of Modin. • He refused and killed the next man who tried. • Together with his five sons, he destroyed the altar and ran for the hills.
THE MACCABEES • For the next few years, they fought a guerrilla war against the Seleucids. • After having several killed on the Sabbath, when they would not fight, Mattathias decreed that fighting in self-defense on the Sabbath was allowed.
JUDAH THE MACCABEE (the Hammer) • He continued the raids and guerrilla warfare. • Antiochus had battles in other parts of his kingdom and couldn’t focus on them.
JUDAH THE MACCABEE (the Hammer) • Eventually, the Maccabees took Jerusalem, entered the Temple and removed all signs of paganism that they found there. w They tore down the altar to Zeus and built a new altar to the Lord. w One day of oil burned for eight. w This is the Festival of Lights or “Hanukkah. ”
JUDAH THE MACCABEE (the Hammer) • Judah’s victory was short-lived. w Antiochus sent his army against him, promising religious freedom if they surrendered. w The people chose to surrender and Judah ran away. w He did not stop fighting, however, and died in battle.
JONATHAN, JUDAH’S BROTHER • Won by diplomacy. • Jonathan sought to become high priest, even though he was not of the right lineage. • The Syrians later murdered him.
SIMON, ANOTHER BROTHER • Became both military commander and high priest. • Expelled the Syrians from the land. • The offices of priest, field commander, and ruler were all given to him by the people and made hereditary. • Began the Hasomanean dynasty.
THE HASOMANEAN DYNASTY • The parties of the Pharisees and the Sadducees began • After about 75 years, the Hasomeaneans fell to fighting each other. • The Roman general, Pompey, offered to mediate. w He conquered the land ended the arguments. w In 63 BC, Israel came under Roman domination.
THE ROMANS • Jews generally fared well; Romans gave a lot of independence • Still, longed for freedom • Herod the Great w Began ruling in 37 BC w Rebuilt several cities and six fortresses w In 20 BC, began building Temple; finished in 68 AD
THE NEW TESTAMENT ENVIRONMENT
GRECO-ROMAN WORLD • Genuine belief in the gods and goddesses of Greece and Rome had given way to a general agnosticism. • Growth in superstition and astrology
GRECO-ROMAN WORLD Philosophies • Platonism w Taught that true reality is not found in the objects of sense, but in the idea or form which lies behind each object. w By grasping and participating in the eternal forms, the soul is lifted and attains true well-being. w The soul’s real home is the world beyond the senses. w The body is a prison for the soul. w This release takes place at death.
GRECO-ROMAN WORLD Philosophies • Cynics w Believed “simple pleasures are the best” and taught an extreme frugality. w Salvation lies in returning to nature. w Cynics took their beliefs to the people. w Cynics’ style called the “diatribe” which consisted of questions and answers.
GRECO-ROMAN WORLD Philosophies • Epicureans w Rejected Plato w How you feel should be the standard of truth. w Wisdom consists in the pursuit of happiness and enjoying life, but not to excess. w There is no afterlife, so you best enjoy life now while you can. w The gods, if they do exist, have nothing to do with us. w At death, the body dissolves. w This tended to bring about atheism and selfindulgence.
GRECO-ROMAN WORLD Philosophies • Stoics w Encouraged the development of a moral fiber. w Divine Reason pervades the universe and it is our duty to live in accord with Reason. w Ethical living was very important to the Stoics. w Interpreted the Roman myths allegorically. w The soul is the divine spark of Reason trapped within the human body. w We have the ability to rise above our circumstances and face them with dignity.
GRECO-ROMAN WORLD Mystery Religions • Most of these started in the east and were brought to Rome later. • Believed everyone worshiped the same god or gods, just used different names. • They are called “mystery religions” because the members were not supposed to tell nonmembers what was going on. • Generally, anyone could join.
GRECO-ROMAN WORLD Mystery Religions • Eleusians w Founded at the Eleusis a small town near Athens. w Based on the myth of Persephone and Pluto. w As she was searching for Persephone, Demeter came to Eleusis. w She was so well treated by the people that she initiated the king into the sacred mysteries. w The worshippers would re-enact the mythic story, thus brining the people into the reality of the tale.
GRECO-ROMAN WORLD Mystery Religions • Mithraism w We have more information on this group than just about any other cult. w Very popular among the military. w Restricted to men.
GRECO-ROMAN WORLD Mystery Religions • Mithraism w In the worship area, there was a statue of Mithra slaying a bull. § His left knee is astride the bull, which is forced to its knees. § His left hand pulls back the nose of the bull and the right hand plunges in a dagger. § From the wound comes three stalks of grain. § The picture is the light of Mithras in victory over the wild life of the bull.
GRECO-ROMAN WORLD Mystery Religions • Mithraism w Ethics were very important for this group. w There were seven degrees of membership, with costumes and head pieces for each level. w The final level was a baptism in the blood of a bull which was supposed to give eternal life.
JUDAISM AND ITS DIVISIONS • Synagogues w “Synagogue” means “meeting place”. w Not sure when they began, probably during the Babylonian Captivity. w The synagogues were places for the reading of Scripture and prayer.
JUDAISM AND ITS DIVISIONS • Synagogues w There was a synagogue in virtually every village in Israel w One rule for the establishment of a synagogue: there had to be ten men. w Men and women sat in different sections of the building. w The “God-fearers” stood along the back wall.
VARIOUS GROUPS AND HOPES
JEWISH MESSIANIC EXPECTATIONS
JEWISH MESSIANIC EXPECTATIONS • The Spirit of God would return to-the covenant land. • God would send the Messiah to free His covenant people and the covenant land from the Romans w Of Davidic line w Man, not divine, but empowered by God's Spirit sad kept righteous w He would be righteous and just in His rule, serving as God's Messianic agent.
JEWISH MESSIANIC EXPECTATIONS • The Messiah's victory would be marked by Judgment w Non-Jews and all wicked Jews destroyed --Taxcollectors, prostitutes, other public sinners w The covenant people would be set free and empowered to live totally as God’s people.
JEWISH MESSIANIC EXPECTATIONS • An age of "heaven on earth" w w w Imagery of the year of Jubilee An abundance of food with little work and toil No more sorrow, sickness and death No more oppression ant unrighteousness Non-Jews would, sometime in the future, stream to Jerusalem to become part of the covenant people. w The coming of a "new heaven and a new earth"
THE SYNOPTIC PROBLEM Q AND SOURCE THEORY OTHER CRITICAL THEORIES
THE SYNOPTIC PROBLEM • What is the relationship among the three Synoptic Gospels? w The Synoptic Gospels are Matthew, Mark and Luke • A historical question, does not necessarily impinge upon authorship and inspiration.
THE SYNOPTIC PROBLEM • That there is a relationship is obvious w The general scheme of the three Gospels is the same. w Not only do Jesus’ words match, but also the narrative events.
THE SYNOPTIC PROBLEM w Where there is a difference § Matthew and Mark agree the most often. § Sometimes Luke and Mark agree. § Rarely, Matthew and Luke agree.
THE SYNOPTIC PROBLEM w There are passages that Matthew and Luke have that Mark does not. w Some stuff in Matthew and Luke is similar, but not identical. w Each Gospel has its own material.
THE SYNOPTIC PROBLEM • What is the relationship? • St. Augustine w Matthew wrote first. w Luke used Matthew. w Mark wrote a Reader’s Digest version of them.
THE SYNOPTIC PROBLEM • Early Church w Matthew wrote first. w Mark wrote his Gospel independently, using Peter as his source. w Luke used Matthew to write his Gospel.
THE SYNOPTIC PROBLEM • Current Scholarship w Mark was the first Gospel written. w Matthew and Luke used Mark and an unknown source called “Q. ” § From the German Quelle meaning “source. ”
THE SYNOPTIC PROBLEM • Why do scholars think that Mark is the first Gospel? w The amount of Mark found in the other Gospels. w Generally, Mark’s order of events used. § Sometimes, Matthew and Mark have a different order than Luke. § Sometimes Luke and Mark differ from Matthew. § But Matthew and Luke never differ from Mark. w Historical candor w Style
THE SYNOPTIC PROBLEM • Biggest problem with Markan priority w Early church witness states that Matthew was the first Gospel written. w There is no external evidence to back up this claim. w Still, most scholars think this scheme answers more questions that it gives.
Q AND SOURCE THEORY • Q = Information that is common to Luke and Matthew, but not in Mark w About 250 verses, mostly sayings with very little narrative material s. w Eusebius quotes a man named Papias who wrote early in the second century. w Papias states that Matthew wrote down the “logia” (sayings, oracles) of Jesus in the “Hebrew dialect. ” w Many think that this might have been a type of Q document.
Q AND SOURCE THEORY w Except for the temptation of Jesus, most of this material is in different locations in each Gospel. w This means one of two things: § Jesus taught the same thing more than once § That one or the other edited the material and put it where he wanted. § Most scholars think Luke has the “original” order.
Q AND SOURCE THEORY • Q Problems w There is no hard evidence of its existence. w There is absolutely no parallel type of literature in that era.
Q AND SOURCE THEORY • Q Problems w Q had no passion account. w Scholars have come up with no less that 18 different possibilities of what was in Q. w Some of the stuff in Q strikes me as two different parables or something that Jesus would have taught more than once.
Q AND SOURCE THEORY • What Do We Do With All This? w This is a historical question and does not necessarily impinge on authorship or inspiration. w We know that Luke, at least, used sources. w A good argument can be made for putting Mark first. w Q is a open question.
OTHER CRITICAL THEORIES • Form Criticism w Definition: The task of inferring what the oral tradition of Jesus was like before it was written down.
OTHER CRITICAL THEORIES • Form Critics identify five types of literature • Paradigms w A story that ends with an important saying. w Plucking ears on the Sabbath. • Tales (Miracle stories) w These have no important sayings and tend to show Jesus as a miracle worker. w The stilling of the storm.
OTHER CRITICAL THEORIES • Sayings w Not attached to a narrative. w The Sermon on the Mount and the parables. • Legends w Poor choice of words. w The idea was an extraordinary story about a holy person. w The infancy narratives.
OTHER CRITICAL THEORIES • Myths w Another poor choice of words. w Times when Jesus and God interacted. w The transfiguration.
OTHER CRITICAL THEORIES • Positives of Form Criticism w The Form Critics help bring attention to the preaching and teaching character of the Gospels.
OTHER CRITICAL THEORIES • Negatives of Form Criticism w Biggest problem: the presuppositions which the critics use. § Began with the belief that the Church either modified or totally made up the words and actions of Jesus. § The Gospels tell us more about the life situation of the early church than they do about Jesus. § They divided the “Jesus of history” from the “Christ of faith. ”
OTHER CRITICAL THEORIES • Negatives of Form Criticism w Biggest problem: the presuppositions which the critics use. § The Gospels have layers: geographical notations, dating, miracles, and doctrinal elements were all added by the later church. • Critics argue that we need to strip the layers from Gospels to get to the “real Jesus” and “the real words of Jesus. ” • This lead to the so-called “search for the historical Jesus. ” • When the search for Jesus is stripped away, you are left with someone who looks much like you do.
OTHER CRITICAL THEORIES • Negatives of Form Criticism w The uncertainty of exact classification § Often arbitrary in selection of forms: paradigms, tales, sayings, legends, myths § All interest in the person and life of Christ are ruled out w The "community myth" § Contradicts all we know about primitive communities § Rules out the influence of Christ and of the apostles on the community § The Good News produced the community, not vice versa
OTHER CRITICAL THEORIES • Negatives of Form Criticism w The folk-lore analogy is dubious § A little more or less than a generation separates Mark from the event § Ignores the memory of men who were eyewitnesses § Neglects the tradition of Jesus' actual words § Makes insufficient allowance for the existence of an authentic tradition of Christ's words, e. g. 1 Cor. 7: 10, 12, 25; 15: 3 - 11
OTHER CRITICAL THEORIES • Negatives of Form Criticism w Ignores the way people learned § Memorization—the only way to preserve a statement or text and the Jews were very tenacious about it. • The Rabbis spoke tersely and incisively. The avoided wordy talk; they expressed themselves in concise terms. • There were poetic devices: alliteration, parable, rhythmic phrases, etc. § Repetition—which would answer why the same stuff shows up in more than one gospel in a different location, Jesus was repeating himself. § Recitation
OTHER CRITICAL THEORIES • Negatives of Form Criticism w Overstepped the legitimate limits of their method § Went from form, speculative in itself, to content § Over-ruled or ignored literary and historical truths w If the main contention of form criticism were true, then the burning issues of the early church would be reflected in the Gospels, e. g. § The problem of integrating the non-Jew into the Christian community; § Speaking in tongues.
OTHER CRITICAL THEORIES • Redaction Criticism w Why the material is arranged the way it is w Overall, pretty positive w However, comes from form-critical school with its problems. w Tends to see a theological motive where others might night.
FEATURES IN THE LIFE AND MINISTRY OF JESUS
THE BIRTH OF JESUS • When was Jesus born? w Herod the Great died in 4 BC w There was an imperial census in 8 BC.
THE BIRTH OF JESUS • The Problem of Quinirius. w Quinirius was governor around 6 AD, which is too late for the birth of Jesus. w There are three possible answers: § Luke is in error here. § Luke has been mistranslated. • “First” should be translated “before” • “Governor” should be translated “governing” § Luke doesn’t give the whole story. • Started under Herod • Completed under Quinirius
THE BIRTH OF JESUS • The Genealogies • Two suggestions: w Matthew is highlighting Joseph’s heritage; Luke is highlighting Mary’s. § But both say they are Joseph’s heritage. § If Mary, Jesus would be considered illegtimate. w Joseph is the product of a Levirite marriage.
JESUS’ MINISTRY • PARABLES w One third of Jesus’ teaching was done in parables. w The parables describe the Kingdom of God in action. w There are 3 kinds of parables: § A simple saying § A comparison § Allegories w A parable has only one main point of comparison
JESUS’ MINISTRY • MIRACLES w Jesus’ miracles are well-attested to. w Josephus calls Jesus a “doer of wonderful deeds. ” w Babylonian Talmud accuses Jesus of sorcery.
JESUS’ MINISTRY • MIRACLES w Miracles were part of Jesus’ message. § Jesus’ Mission statement: Luke 4. § The Kingdom of God had come to set people free from: • • Sickness Demons Evils of nature Death w The key to understanding the miracles was faith: realizing that the miracles were the kingdom of God at work.
THE PASSION AND RESURRECTION • The Last Supper w Did Jesus celebrate the Passover? § Synoptics: Most definitely yes!
THE PASSION AND RESURRECTION w Did Jesus celebrate the Passover? § John: Well, maybe not… John 18: 28, 19: 14 • John uses the word “Passover” in a wide sense Passover and the “Feast of the Unleavened Bread • Friday was normally called “Preparation Day” meaning “Preparation for the Sabbath. ”
THE PASSION AND RESURRECTION w Did Jesus celebrate the Passover? § John: Well, maybe not… John 18: 28, 19: 14 • Saying this was “Preparation for the Passover” could mean “Friday in Passover Week. ” • There were other important meals during Passover week that might be what John is referring to. • There is some discussion as to whether or not all the Jews used the same calendar
THE PASSION AND RESURRECTION • THE LAST SUPPER w The Order of the Meal § First cup of wine (Luke 22: 15 -18) At this time, Jesus would have spoken the blessing over the wine. • The footwashing (John 13: 1 -20) • “One of you will betray me” (Luke 22: 22; Matthew 26: 23 -24) • Washing the right hand was followed by preliminary dish. • It consisted of herbs that were dipped in sauce.
THE PASSION AND RESURRECTION • THE LAST SUPPER w The Order of the Meal § First cup of wine (Luke 22: 15 -18) At this time, Jesus would have spoken the blessing over the wine. • Jesus says that the betrayer would be one who dipped his hand into the dish with me. • John asks Jesus who the betrayer was. • Jesus says it is the person he gives a dipped portion to: Judas.
THE PASSION AND RESURRECTION • THE LAST SUPPER w The Order of the Meal § First cup of wine (Luke 22: 15 -18) At this time, Jesus would have spoken the blessing over the wine. • Judas leaves. • “All of you will leave me. ” Matthew 26: 31 -35; Mark 14: 27 -31; Luke 22: 31 -38; John 13: 31 -38
THE PASSION AND RESURRECTION § The Main Part of the Meal • After the preliminary dish, the second cup of wine was distributed. • The meal was put on the table. • The youngest would ask, “Why do we eat this meal? ” and the father of the family would respond with the Passover story. • This was followed by singing some of the Hallel Psalms (Psalms 111 -118). • The second cup of wine was then drank and both hands would be washed.
THE PASSION AND RESURRECTION § The Third Cup, the Cup o Blessing or Thanksgiving (Eucharist). • It was at this point that Jesus instituted the Lord’s Supper. § Finally, after the meal, Jesus had his great discourse in John.
THE PASSION AND RESURRECTION • PONTIUS PILATE w Pilate served from 26 to 36 AD. w There were three major incidents before the trial of Jesus (RAGS): § Roman Standards § Aqueduct § Golden Shields w When the Jews protested, they basically threatened Pilate. § Tiberius was not well. § Pilate would have faced exile or suicide.
THE PASSION AND RESURRECTION • Crucifixion w There were two types of crosses: T and Latin cross w The cross beam was carried by the accused; it weighed about 100 lbs. w A superscription given the reason for the crucifixion was either put above the head or around the neck. w A wooden seat was positioned about half way up. w A piece of wood was used to help the body stay on the cross. w Death was caused by suffocation.
THE PASSION AND RESURRECTION • If Jesus Didn’t Rise, then What happened? w The “stolen body” theory w The “wrong tomb” theory w The “swoon” theory w The “hallucination” theory
THE PASSION AND RESURRECTION • Evidence in Scripture for the resurrection: w The women w Early church preaching w The Gospels vary in their accounts w The disciples w Paul
THE PASSION AND RESURRECTION • What did the Resurrection mean? w That Jesus is the Son of God. w That God accepted Jesus’ sacrifice for us. w That we live a new, forgiven life. w That we will rise again.
THE FOUR GOSPELS
THE GOSPELS • The Gospels are not biographies as we would normally understand that term. • The purpose of the Gospels is to present Jesus to the readers.
MATTHEW • Author: Matthew, the apostle w Attested to throughout church history w Best argument against it: Why would rely so heavily on Mark’s Gospel? § This is an assumption. § He could have read Mark’s Gospel and then decided to incorporate it to show apostolic unity. w If Matthew not the author, then you have to show why church tradition is wrong.
MATTHEW • Place of writing: Somewhere in Palestine • Written to Jewish Christians • Date of writing: Depends on presuppositions. Probably around as 50 -60 AD.
MATTHEW • Key Themes w Messianic interest § Jesus is the new Moses § Structure: • Birth and Infancy of Jesus (1 -2) • Book 1—The Kingdom of Heaven is Announced § Narrative (Galilean ministry; 3 -4) § Teaching (Sermon the Mount; 5 -7) • Book 2—The Kingdom of Heaven is Preached § Narrative (8: 1 -9: 34) § Teaching (9: 35 -11: 1)
MATTHEW • Key Themes w Messianic interest § Jesus is the new Moses § Structure: • Book 3—The Mystery of the Kingdom of Heaven § Narrative (11: 2 -12) § Teaching (parables) (13: 1 -52) • Book 4—The Church as the Kingdom of Heaven § Narrative (13: 53 -17) § Teaching (18)
MATTHEW • Key Themes w Messianic interest § Jesus is the new Moses § Structure: • Book 5—The Advent of the Kingdom of Heaven § Narrative (19 -22) § Teaching (23 -26) • The Passion and Resurrection (26 -28)
MATTHEW • Key Themes w Jesus is the fulfiller of prophecy § His passages sometimes bring questions w Jew first, then the Gentile w The Church § Only Gospel writer to use the word “Church” w Eschatology (end times)
MARK • Author: John Mark w Papias states that he wrote from Rome with Peter as his source. w Is he the naked guy? • Date: 50 to 60 AD • Written to Roman Christians
MARK • Key themes: w Jesus as a busy man w Gospel for gentiles w Blunt view of people • Textual question: The ending of Mark
LUKE • Author: Luke, a doctor and companion of Paul’s w Author of both Luke and Acts w Both dedicated to same man w Only Gentile author in the NT w Some wonder if there is medical language or interests in his Gospel
LUKE • Date: 60 -65 AD ? • Written to Theophilus w “Most Excellent” a social rank w Strong catechetical emphasis
LUKE • Themes in Luke: w Universality of the Gospel—Gentiles and women are prominent w Prayer w Holy Spirit
JOHN • Author: John the apostle. w John Drane: “The question of authorship has always been rather confused. ” w No, it has not.
JOHN • Author: John the apostle. w Early Church evidence § Irenaenus states that Polycarp, who was a student of John’s, said that he was the author of this Gospel and that it was written in Ephesus. § “The Elder John” • This comes from Papias, once again quoted in Eusebius. • Would the early church would give a Gospel to man of whom nothing was really known? • Eusebius mentions the Elder John is to get away from the idea that Revelation was written by the apostle.
JOHN • Author: John the apostle. w Internal evidence § § Gives great deal of geographical detail Author claims to be an eyewitness John, son of Zebedee, is never named. There is the “disciple whom Jesus loved. ” • This disciple is one of the 12 • Close connection with Peter • Given care of Jesus’ mother
JOHN • Date: Around 85 -100 AD. • Purpose: John 20: 30 -31 • Themes: w Emphasis on the Old Testament w The Sprit w Love, truth, light, life, and abiding are all abstract themes that keep coming up.