- Slides: 55
The Industrial Revolution What conditions exist which promote the industrial revolution in Great Britain? Why are the causes and consequences of rapid industrialization in Great Britain? What are the long-term global effects of Britain’s industrial prowess?
What is the Industrial Revolution?
The term 'Industrial Revolution' describes the economic development in England, from 1760 to 1840 brought about by the application of chemical power to man’s use. (e. g. the steam engine. ) The Industrial Revolution refers to the transformation in the method of production, from man-made, to machine made goods Inevitably associated with the Industrial Revolution were socio-
Was there only one Industrial Revolution?
Agricultural Revolution New farming technologies, such as Charles Townshend's four field crop rotation system
Agricultural Revolution New farming technologies, such as Jethro Tull's seed planting drill
Agricultural Revolution New Crops, such as the Potato An acre of potatoes produces about 3 times the calories of an acre of wheat. In addition, they are easier to grow.
Agricultural Revolution Selective Breeding Robert Bakewell
The Enclosure Movement In order for farmers to use these and other agricultural innovations, they needed to have large, consolidated plots of land. This was a problem since over the centuries the land in England had been divided up into small strips. Even wealthy farmers, with lots of land, tended to own a number of separate lots spread throughout the community. To remedy this situation, the British Parliament enacted a series of laws (mostly between
Four Major Components They divided up the "common land " which had traditionally been shared by the community. They redistributed plots of land in an effort to combine them into larger areas. They revoked the poor peasant farmer's traditional right to scavenge food left behind on his/her land lord's fields (gleaning rights). They required all farmers to build an expensive gate around their lands.
Enclosure Acts A Typical English Community Before Enclosure A Typical English Community After Enclosure
Robert Andrews and his Wife Frances (painted about 1750) by Thomas Gainsborough (1727 -1788)
Effects of Agricultural Reforms Increased the food output of farms, allowing them to feed the increasing populations of England's industrializing cities Expansion of cottage industry Reduced the number of people needed to live in the countryside and farm, thereby creating a pool of available labor for the new factories being built in the cities.
Population Growth Better nutrition leads to longer lifespan Dependable food supplies + good job opportunities = Younger average of marriage Earlier marriage increases the birthrate per couple Early 19 th century 40% of England under the age of 15
Cottage Industry, Domestic System, the Putting Out system
Woollen cloth collected by merchant Thread woven into cloth on loom Woollen thread given to weaver Woollen fleece delivered How cloth was made in the Domestic System Spinner receives payment Fleece cleaned and carded Wool spun on spinning wheels Spun thread collected by manufacturer
Friedrich Engels, The Condition of the Working Class in England “Before the introduction of machinery, the spinning and weaving of raw materials was carried on in the working man's home. Wife and daughter spun the yarn that the father wove or that they sold, if he did not work it up himself…“So the workers vegetated throughout a passably comfortable existence, leading a righteous and peaceful life. . [T]heir material position was far better than that of their successors. They did not need to overwork; they did no more than they chose to do, and yet earned what they needed. They had leisure for healthful work in garden or field, work which, in
Why did the Domestic System have to change? Only small quantities of goods could be produced. As manufacture was by hand, with items being made individually, it was a slow process. With the rapidly growing population of this period, the Domestic System just would not have been able to produce the amount of goods
Why Did the Industrial Revolution Begin in England?
Geography Island nation. Many harbors and inlets. Numerous navigable rivers. Small size. Huge amounts of coal and iron Wool and cotton
Labor Supply Population increase – 18 th century Agricultural Revolution Enclosure Movement
Surplus Capital Commercial Revolution Investment Capital Mercantilism Large overseas empire Expanding Atlantic trade Raw materials New markets Bank of England (1694) effective central bank and credit system
Management Men who could bring together land, labor and capital Less rigid class structure than on Continent More social mobility Trade and industry were not regarded as degrading
Government Political stability and nationalism Belief that state should not interfere with natural rights of liberty and property Provided Infrastructure (roads, canals) World’s most powerful naval force. Largest Merchant Marine Inefficient enforcement of mercantilist regulations of domestic industry
Demand for Goods Concentration on staple goods Mass production/mass consumption Colonies added incentive No barriers between trade within country leads to regional specialization Impact of French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars
Zeitgeist Impact of Scientific Revolution Protestant Work Ethic Openness to Invention
Necessity is the Mother of Invention
Invention of New Machines Many new machines were designed to speed up production 18 th century powered by hand or water 19 th century steam-powered machines more powerful, faster and more precise. Now mass production was possible.
Flying Shuttle, Automation of Textile Making In 1733, John Kay invented the flying shuttle, an improvement to looms that enabled weavers to weave faster. By using a flying shuttle, a single weaver could produce a wide piece of cloth. The original shuttle contained a bobbin on to which the weft (weaving term for the crossways yarn) yarn was wound. It was normally pushed from one side of the warp (weaving term for the series of yarns that extended lengthways in a loom) to the other side by hand. Before the flying shuttle wide looms needed two or more weavers to throw the shuttle.
Water Frame, Production of Stronger Thread In 1762, Richard Arkwright patented the water frame that could produce stronger threads for yarns. The first models were powered by waterwheels so the device came to be first known as the water frame. It was the first powered, automatic, and continuous textile machine and enabled the move away from small home manufacturing towards factory production of textiles. The water frame was also the first machine that could spin cotton threads.
Spinning Jenny, Increased Yarn & Thread Production In 1764, a British carpenter and weaver named James Hargreaves invented an improved spinning jenny, a hand-powered multiple spinning machine that was the first machine to improve upon the spinning wheel by making it possible to spin more than one ball of yarn Spinner machines made threads and yarns used by weavers in their looms. It enabled a spinner to spin as many as eight to ten threads at a time, on his new machine. This increased the production of yarn.
As weaving looms became faster, inventors had to find ways for spinners to keep up.
1779 - Spinning Mule Increased Variety in Threads & Yarns In 1779, Samuel Crompton invented the spinning mule that combined the moving carriage of the spinning jenny with the rollers of the water frame. The spinning mule gave the spinner great control over the weaving process. Spinners could now make many different types of yarn. Finer cloths could now be made.
Power Loom, Effect on the Women in Textile Mills The power loom, invented by Edward Cartwright in 1784, was a steam-powered, mechanically-operated version of a regular loom. A loom is a device that combined threads to make cloth. When the power loom became efficient, women replaced most men as weavers in the textile factories.
Cotton Gin, Increases Cotton Availability In 1793, Eli Whitney invented a machine called the ’Cotton Gin. ’ It separated the seeds from the fibers of raw cotton. So cotton could be produced in large quantities for spinning and weaving of cloth
Cotton Imported to Britain between 1701 and 1800. Cotton Goods Exported by Britain between 1701 to 1800 Year lbs. Year £ 1701 1, 985, 868 1701 23, 253 1710 715, 008 1710 5, 698 1720 1, 972, 805 1720 16, 200 1730 1, 545, 472 1730 13, 524 1741 1, 645, 031 1741 20, 709 1751 2, 976, 610 1751 45, 986 1764 3, 870, 392 1764 200, 354 1775 4, 764, 589 1780 355, 060 1780 6, 766, 613 1787 1, 101, 457 1790 31, 447, 605 1790 1, 662, 369 1800 56, 010, 732 1800 5, 406, 501
The Factory System
Factory Production Concentrates production in one place [materials, labor]. Located near sources of power [rather than labor or markets]. Requires a lot of capital investment [factory, machines, etc. ] more than skilled labor.
The Factory System Rigid schedule. 12 -14 hour day. Dangerous conditions Mind-numbing monotony
How the Workforce Changed Occupations in 1801 Occupations in 1871
The Luddites: 1811 -1816 Attacks on the “frames” [power looms]. Ned Ludd [a mythical figure supposed to live in Sherwood Forest] France: sabotage
Steam Power Thomas Newcomen invented the first steam engine in 1705, in order to pump water out of the mines 1765 James Watt invented and patented the first truly efficient and practical Steam Engine. . This engine was used to shift spinning and weaving machines in the textile industries.
The Coal Connection Wood had been used in large quantities as a fuel in Great Britain, before the Industrial Revolution. As the supply of timber diminished, and since wood was not able to withstand the strain of new techniques and processes, coal and steel was brought into use by industrialists. • 1 day of coal production= 27 days worth of energy Thus coal mining became an important industry
Importance of the Steam Engine • Steam-powered machines in the iron industry, such as the steam hammer, could shape huge pieces of iron for making machines, girders, ships or railway tracks • Steam pumps could now pump water out of mines, allowing deeper mines to be dug. More coal was produced which was needed, in turn, to fuel the steam engines
Steel Production • Large quantities of iron and steel were required to make new machines. • This led to the establishment of smelting plants and foundries in Great Britain. • In 1856, Henry Bessemer discovered a process by which impurities could be removed from iron. This purified refined iron came to be known as ’steel’, which helped in making more accurate tools, implements, weapons and machines
New Transport Systems Canals were built to transport raw materials to the factories and to take finished goods to markets. Macadamization (John Mc. Adam) 1815 Railways and steam ships transformed the transportation of both raw materials and massproduced goods. Costs were reduced and time was saved.
The Coming of Railroads • 1830 George Stephenson’s “Rocket” first locomotive (Liverpool to Manchester) • Railroad boom means lower transportation costs, larger markets and cheaper goods. • RR workers were taken from the country and brought to the city • RR changed the outlook and values of the society
The Impact of the Railroad
Steamships Robert Fulton (1807)
Industrialization By 1850
Railroads on the Continent