- Slides: 13
THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Part II
The Second Industrial Revolution • The First Industrial Revolution gave rise to textiles, railroads, iron, and coal. • The Second Industrial Revolution will result in steel, chemicals, electricity, and petroleum
STEEL • Steel was stronger than iron. Once a process was developed to produce it cheaply…lighter, smaller, and faster machines and engines could be produced as well as railways, ships and weapons.
ELECTRICITY • Electricity could be used for light, heat and motion. • The first practical generators of electricity were developed in the 1870’s. • Electricity gave birth to a series of new inventions: – Light bulb by Thomas Edison – Telephone by Alexander Graham Bell – Radio waves by Guglielmo Marconi
ELECTRICITY • Electricity powered street cars and subways • Electricity transformed the factory. – Conveyor belts, cranes and machines can all be powered by electricity – Electric lights meant that factories could be open 24 hours a day
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE • Provides a new source of power and transportation – Ocean liners – Automobiles • Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach produce the first gas powered car in 1889 • Henry Ford revolutionized the car industry in 1908 using an assembly line to mass-produce the Model T – Airplanes • Orville and Wilbur Wright make the first fixed wing flight in December 17, 1903 at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina • 1919 the first passenger air service was established • Creates a need for oil production
New Patterns • Industrial production grew at a rapid pace after 1870 because people are buying manufactured goods. • Sales increased for two reasons: – Wages increased – Production costs decreased especially transportation • Department stores
New Patterns • Western Europe became industrialized nations with a high standard of living and decent systems of transportation – Great Britain, Belgium, France, Netherlands, Germany, western part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and Northern Italy • Southern and Eastern Europe remained mostly agricultural with little industry – Southern Italy, Austria-Hungary, Spain, Portugal, the Balkan kingdoms, and Russia
THE COMMUNIST MANIFESTO • Written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels because of the horrible conditions found in factories and cities. • Industrial capitalism was blamed for these conditions
THE THEORY • All history is based on class struggle – the “oppressors” vs. the “oppressed” • The oppressors own the means of production (land, raw materials, money, etc. ) and have the power to control governments and society (ruling class) • The oppressed depend on this class for survival
THE THEORY • In Marx’s day it was the Bourgeoisie (industrial middle class) who were the oppressors and the Proletariat (working class) were the oppressed. • Marx predicted that this struggle would eventually lead to a violent revolution and the proletariat would overthrow the bourgeoisie and form a classless society where everyone worked for the good of all.
SOCIALIST PARTIES • Various socialist parties form based on the ideas of Marx • Some socialist parties promote violent revolution and the overthrow of capitalism worldwide. • Other socialist parties rejected the revolutionary approach and sought reforms by working through the democratic process.
TRADE UNIONS • Trade unions developed to help the working class meet their demands by having power in numbers. • The strike (work stoppage) was used to pressure an employer to meet worker’s demands • Better working and living conditions resulted.