- Slides: 77
The Industrial Revolution Mr. Bolanos The Industrial Revolution is when people stopped making stuff at home and started making stuff in factories!
n Standard: WHII. 9 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the effects of the Industrial Revolution during the 19 th century by: – – – citing scientific, technological, and industrial developments and explaining how they brought about urbanization and social and environmental changes explaining the emergence of capitalism as a dominant economic pattern, and the subsequent development of socialism and communism describing the evolution of the nature of work and the labor force, including its effects on families, the status of women and children, the slave trade, and the labor union movement
n The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18 th to the 19 th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions of the times n Industrialization: a shift from an agricultural (farming) economy to one based on industry (manufacturing)
Key Terms n n n n n Industrialization – a shift from an agricultural economy (farming) to one based on industry (manufacturing) Manufacturing – the use of machines, tools, and labor to make things for use or sale Rural – farming or country life; villages (sparsely populated) Urban – city life (densely populated) Urbanization – the movement of people to cities Tenement – a substandard, multi-family dwelling; usually old and occupied by the poor Free market – a market in which there is no economic intervention and regulation by the state (govt) Capitalism – private ownership of means of production Socialism – society (not the individual) owns and operates the means of production
Turning Points in History: Industrial Revolution Introduction: http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=3 Efqa. NBkvc (3: 31)
Preview: Reading & Questions n As a quick preview to the Industrial Revolution, read each passage and answer the questions that follow – Overview Topics § What is a Revolution? § What Caused the American Industrial Revolution? § Horrors of the Workplace – The Beginning of Child Labor – Working Conditions – Life in the City § The Assembly Line
Pre-Industrial Revolution n Village life dominated – families were nearly selfsufficient n Most villagers were farmers
Making Cloth Before Machines n Cottage Industry – Slow process – labor intensive – Business involving people who worked at home
Causes of the Industrial Revolution n Agricultural Revolution – improved the quality and quantity of food – Farmers mixed different kinds of soil or tried new crop rotation to get higher yields – This led to a surplus of food = fewer people died from hunger = rapid growth in population – Rich landowners pushed ahead with enclosure: the process of taking over and consolidating land once shared by peasant farmers (farm output and profits rose) – New technologies and new sources of energy and materials (e. g. , James Watt’s steam engine became a key source of power)
The Enclosure Movement n The process of taking over and consolidating land formerly shared by peasant farmers n Landowners gained: – More land for pastures – Larger fields for crops n Laborers lost: – Forced off their lands – Moved to growing cities
Enclosure One thing Led to Another n Farmers gained pasture land for animals n Raised more sheep n Wool output increased n Larger fields n Able to cultivate product more efficiently n Farm out-put increased n Profits rose
Land Enclosure in England
Push Factors: Where did all the people go? Fewer worker needed on the lands n Farmers forced off their lands n Small owners could not compete n Villages shrank n Cities grew – and GREW!! n Over London by Rail Gustave Doré c. 1870. Shows the densely populated and polluted environments created in the new industrial cities
Rapid Population Growth Population of Britain in 1750 6 million Population of Britain in 1851 21 million Population of London in 1750 500, 000 Population of London in 1851 3 million Families in agriculture in 1750 65% of population Families in agriculture in 1851 25% of population
Migration to Cities Urbanization • Urbanization: the movement of people to cities • Changes in farming, soaring population, and an increase in demand for workers led people to move from farms to the cities to work in factories • Small towns near natural resources and cities near factories boomed instantly
Industrial Revolution Begins In Great Britain Stable Government n n n No wars Had capital (money) to invest in businesses Had overseas markets (colonial empire) Natural Resources n n n Coal (energy for machines) Iron ore (for tools) Large network of rivers to move products Labor Supply n n Growing population Ready workforce New Technology n Invention and improvement of steam engine
Industrial Revolution Spreads to Europe and the United States
Industrial Revolution Begins in Britain n New Ways of Working – Industrial Revolution—greatly increases output of machine-made goods. – Revolution begins in England in the middle 1700 s.
Inventions Spur Industrialization – Factories— buildings that contain machinery for manufacturing
Growth of Industry n Growth of factories – As demand for cloth grew, inventors came up with new machines (e. g. , flying shuttle, spinning jenny) – To house these new machines, manufacturers built the first factories – New machines and factories increased production – By the 1850 s, factories began to be powered by coal and steam engines
Technological Advances that Produced the Industrial Revolution Spinning Jenny: James Hargreaves n Steam Engine: James Watt n Cotton Gin: Eli Whitney n Process for making Steel: Henry Bessemer n
Spinning Jenny: 1764 n Invented by James Hargreaves n At the time, cotton production could not keep up with demand n This machine spun many threads at the same time, thus reducing the amount of work needed to produce yarn (increased productivity = produced yarn quickly)
First Major Industry to Form TEXTILE! The demand for cloth grew, so merchants had to compete with others for the supplies to make it. This raised a problem for the consumer because the products were at a higher cost. The solution was to use machinery, which was cheaper then products made by hand (which took a long time to create), therefore allowing the cloth to be cheaper to the consumer. Remember the ‘Spinning Jenny’? It reduced the amount of time and work needed to produce yarn (increased productivity)
Textile Factory Workers in England 1813 2400 looms 150, 000 workers 1833 85, 000 looms 200, 000 workers 1850 224, 000 looms >1 million workers
Modern Steam Engine: 1763 -1775 n Improved by James Watt n Offered a dramatic n Could be used to drive many different types of machinery (by the 1850 s, most factories were powered by the steam engine) n Increased the demand for coal to heat the water to produce steam (and the need for coal miners) increase in fuel efficiency
Improvements in Transportation n Watt’s Steam Engine – Need for cheap, convenient power spurs development of steam engine – James Watt improves steam engine, financed by Matthew Boulton – Boulton—an entrepreneur —organizes, manages, takes business risks. Matthew Boulton James Watt
Steam engine designed by Boulton & Watt. Engraving of a 1784 engine. Reproduction of James Watt's steam engine
Cotton Gin: 1793 n Invented by Eli Whitney to mechanize the cleaning of cotton n A machine that quickly and easily separates the cotton fibers from the seeds, a job previously done by hand n Led to the demand for more slaves
(Henry) Bessemer Process for the Manufacture of Steel: 1856 n n Bessemer process involved using oxygen in air blown through molten pig iron to burn off the impurities and thus create steel Lowered the cost of steel production, leading to steel being widely substituted for cast iron n Steel used for the production of guns and railway structures such as bridges and tracks
Technology The Industrial Revolution was built on rapid advances in technology n Which of these three inventions most changed the way that raw materials, goods, and people moved? n
Improvements in Transportation n Water Transportation – Robert Fulton builds first steamboat, the Clermont, in 1807 – England’s water transport improved by system of canals
Fulton’s North River Steamboat as it appeared in 1807, later named Clermont
Improvements in Transportation n Road Transportation The A 4 is a historic major – British roads are road in England, improved; companies portions of operate them as toll which are known roads. These were as the Great called “turnpike West Road and trusts”. Bath Road.
Improvements in Transportation – By the early Victorian period toll gates were perceived as an impediment to free trade. The multitude of small trusts were frequently charged with being inefficient in use of resources and potentially suffered from petty corruption. – The railway era spelt disaster for most turnpike trusts. The Round House (Old Toll House) at Stanton Drew
The Railway Age Begins n Steam-Driven Locomotives – In 1804, Richard Trevithick builds first steam-driven locomotive
Trevithick's No. 14 engine, built by Hazledine and Co. , Bridgnorth, about 1804, and illustrated after being rescued circa 1885; from Scientific American Supplement, Vol. XIX, No. 470, January 3, 1885.
The Coalbrookdale company then built a rail locomotive for him, but little is known about it, including whether or not it actually ran.
Trevithick's 1804 locomotive. This full-scale replica of steam-powered railway locomotive is in the National Waterfront Museum, Swansea
The Railway Age Begins – In 1825, George Stephenson builds worlds first railroad line. – He is called the “Father of Railways”. – His rail gauge of 4 feet 8½ inches (1, 435 mm), sometimes called "Stephenson gauge", is the world's standard gauge.
The Railway Age Begins n. Liverpool-Manchester Railroad –Entrepreneurs build railroad from Liverpool to Manchester
The Railway Age Begins – Stephenson’s Rocket acknowledged as the best locomotive (1829)
A cutaway view of the cylinder and steam valve of the replica Rocket
The Railway Age Begins n Railroads Revolutionize Life in Britain – Railroads spur industrial growth, create jobs – Cheaper transportation boosts many industries; people move to cities
The Impact of the Railroad • Transportation innovation that most changed the way raw materials, goods, and people moved • Railroads revolutionize life in Britain • Spur industry by offering a cheap transportation method of goods • Created hundreds of thousands of jobs (railroads, mining, factories, etc) • Boosted agricultural and fishing industries who could now transport their goods to distant cities. • People could seek employment further away from home
New Ways of Thinking: Economic Patterns Capitalism vs. Socialism
How Do You Solve the Problems of Industrialization? Standard 10. 3. 6 Analyze the emergence of Capitalism as a dominant economic pattern and the responses to it including Utopianism, Social Democracy, Socialism, Communism
Sec. 4 Philosophers of Industrialization Capitalism- an economic system in which the factors of production are privately owned and money is invested in business ventures to make a profit. n Laissez faire- the economic policy of letting owners of industry and business set working conditions without interference n Economics- the study of how society chooses to use scarce resources to satisfy its unlimited wants and needs n
Adam Smith- The Wealth of Nations n 3 natural laws 1. Self-interest 2. Competition 3. Supply and demand Government should stay out of business!
Thomas Malthus- An Essay on the Principle of Population (1798) 1. What are these 2 charts telling us about the relationship between population and resources? 2. What is the consequence of this relationship?
Laissez faire philosophers (what are the effects of population growth? ) n Conclusion: Wages would go lower as a population increased n David Ricardo- Principles of Political Economy and Taxation – If there were more workers than jobs available what would be the result? – If there were more jobs than workers what would be the result?
Laissez fair philosophers believe That government should resist the idea of helping poor workers 2. Passing laws would upset the free market system and result in less wealth! 1.
Utilitarianism- the government should try to promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people John Stuart Mill: Reforms in education, Law and prisons Jeremy Bentham
Utopian Ideas- Robert Owen New Lanark, Scotland New Harmony, Indiana
Socialism: the factors of production (land, labor, capital) are owned by the public. 1. Government should plan the economy and consequently control factories mines, railroads, etc. 2. Public ownership would promote equality and end poverty.
Karl Marx The Communist Manifesto “Workers of the World Unite!” Lenin Castro Zedong
Communist Manifesto n Bourgeoisie vs. Proletariat (Employers) vs. (Workers) n Prediction: the proletariat would revolt and take over the factories. n In Communism, all means of production (land, mines, factories, businesses, etc. ) would be owned by the people. No private n property and all resources are shared equally! n Consequently, poverty disappears. n “dictatorship of the proletariat”
Marx was wrong (on a few things!) 1. 2. 3. Economic forces do not completely dominate society. Religion, Nationalism, Democracy are strong forces as well. Wages and the standard of living has increased. Legislation passed to protect workers.
Communism continued What is the difference between capitalism and communism? 2. Describe how Karl Marx was wrong in his predictions. (page 304) 3. Which nations are communist today? (p. 304) 1.
Capitalism n Economic system in which the means of production are privately owned and operated for a private profit n Free-market economy: decisions regarding supply, demand, price, distribution, and investments are made by private actors – Profit goes to owners who invest in the business – Wages are paid to workers employed by companies and businesses
Stereotype of the Factory Owner
The Socialists: Utopians & Marxists × People as a society would operate and own the means of production, not individuals × Their goal was a society that benefited everyone, not just a rich, well-connected few × Tried to build perfect communities [utopias]
Karl Marx: Communism n Wrote: The Communist Manifesto, 1848 n A response to the injustices of capitalism; argued that capitalism would produce internal tensions which would lead to its destruction n Communism = a political philosophy that aims for a classless and stateless society structured upon common ownership of the means of production and an end to private property “Class struggle between employers and employees is inevitable. Instead of capitalism with its emphasis on greediness and selfishness, the new society ruled by the proletariat (working class) will ensure social, economic, and political equality for everyone. ”
Capitalism vs. Communism n Capitalism: n Capitalism “Re. Definitions” n Communism “Re. Definitions” – an economic and social system in which capital is privately owned – labor, goods and capital are traded in markets; and – profits distributed to owners or invested in technologies and industries. n Communism: – a social structure in which classes are abolished – property is commonly controlled – A dictatorship of the workers
Effects of the Industrial Revolution
How did industrialization change the way of life? Size ↑ Large gaps between the rich and the poor Changes brought by industrialization Class Tensions Cities Factories Living Conditions No safety codes Sickness Working Conditions Long hours, Little pay The rise of the middle class Dangerous conditions
Positive Effects n Increased world productivity n Growth of railroads (faster and more efficient transportation of goods and people) n New entrepreneurs emerged (more money = more technology/inventions) n New inventions improved quality of life for many n Labor eventually organized (unions) to improve working conditions n Laws were enacted to enforce health and safety codes in cities and factories n New opportunities for women n Rise of the middle class – size, power, and wealth expanded n Social structure becomes more flexible
Negative Effects: Factory Life n n n n Child labor used in factories & mines Miserable (dirty, cramped) and dangerous (fingers, limbs, & lives lost) working conditions Monotonous work with heavy, noisy, repetitive machinery Long working hours – six days a week, with little pay Rigid schedules ruled each day Gas, candle & oil lamps created soot and smoke in factories Diseases such as pneumonia & tuberculosis spread through factories
Negative Effects: Labor Practices & Housing Issues n n n n Labor unrest leads to demonstrations (sometimes violent) Strikes take place Women were paid less than men (were actually preferred) Indentured workers Employers had a more impersonal relationship with employees Tenement housing was poorly constructed, crowded, and cold Human and industrial waste contaminated water supplies – typhoid and cholera spread
Negative Effects: Worldwide Air pollution increased over cities and industrial areas n Technological changes eroded the balance of power in Europe n Contributed to the growth of imperialism and communism (Marx’s & Engels’ theories) n Produced weaponry that gave Western nations a military advantage over developing nations n
Not Necessarily Good or Bad n The location of work places changed as more goods were produced away from the home environment (towns/factories) n Educational systems emphasized more science, technology, and business n A global economy began to emerge (trade)
Summary: Social Effects Increase in population of cities n Women and children enter the workplace as cheap labor n Rise of labor unions n Introduction of reforms n – – – Laws to protect children in the workplace Minimum wage and maximum hour laws Federal safety and health standards Growth of the middle class n Increased production and higher demand for raw materials = growth of worldwide trade n Expansion of education n Women’s increased demands for suffrage n
Advantages of the Industrial Revolution – Goods were able to be produced much more cheaply – There were greater job opportunities – There was an increase in wealth and in general quality of life – An independent urban manufacturing business force arose – New inventions and innovations occurred; information spread, making the world “smaller” – Spurred the rise of large cities