- Slides: 19
The Industrial Revolution Begins • The Industrial Revolution begins in England around 1750. • Great Britain had all of the Factors of Production including land, labor, capital (wealth $) • Great Britain had the natural resources needed for industrialization such as iron ore, coal, and rivers. • The English people had more political and economic freedom than others in Europe which allowed them to pursue their own interests
England’s Natural Resources Coal provided the energy needed to power the factories Iron was used to build the machines, factories, and products
Causes of the Industrial Revolution • Population Growth forces people to move into cities-Urbanization • The Agricultural Revolution- new crops led to an increase in food and population (scientific methods used in food production) • Crop rotation increased food productivity which increased the population • Enclosures- wealthy landowners fenced off their land forcing small farmers to move to cities • Trade and Inventiveness of people (Entrepreneurs)
Industrial Revolution Inventions • The development of the Steam Engine helped run mining and textile (clothing) industry. • Spinning Jenny invented to mass produce clothes • James Watt invented the combustion steam engine • The steam engine leads to Ocean-going ships • Steam replaces sails on ships
Steamships. • Allowed the British to conquer far away lands such as India and parts of Africa • Enables the British to create a world empire spanning many continents
Railroads • Allows quicker transportation across land • Opened new lands to settlement all over the world § Railroads connected towns and villages to each other § Railroads lead to the development of “Suburbs” little town outside of the city § Trade increases dramatically due to faster shipping times
The Factory System • Factory system replaced the domestic system (goods made by hand) • Can produce more products quickly in factories • Increased supply lowers the price of goods • Factories allowed for Mass production of goods • Assembly line created to increase efficiency • Women and children enter the work place to work in factories.
Assembly Line Workers
Eli Whitney • Eli Whitney invented interchangeable parts. • Products could now be put together and repaired easier than if they were completely hand made.
Get a Job!!!
Factory Workers • Women and children were paid less than half as much as m • Working hours were long, and wages were low. • Dangerous working conditions led to human injury Ex. ) 12 -15 hour work days Earnings: men - $5 per week women - $2 per week children - $ 1 per week • Because these jobs were unskilled, workers were often at the mercy of factory owners • Most factory owners were only concerned about profit
Social Effects of Industrial Revolution • Poverty, disease, and Pollution common in early cities • Bankers, wealthy farmers, merchants, and factory owners made up this “middle class” in society that continued to grow • Gave birth to “Working Class” of unskilled labor often treated poorly. • Caused Social Divisions based upon wealth to increase in Europe. • The price of goods becomes more affordable due to mass production • Dangerous and unhealthy working conditions in factories causes health problems for many factory workers
Impact of Industrial Revolution • Causes Deforestation and environmental pollution • Prolongs Slavery in America and the Caribbean because raw materials are needed like cotton • Brought women and children into the workforce • Most children of the industrial revolution miss out on an education causing a cycle of poverty • Massive population increases and migrations of people across the globe looking for work in factories ( immigration). • Increased urbanization in Europe • Leads to imperialism because European countries need to acquire raw materials by conquering weaker nations (Africa, South America)
Impact of Industrialization on the continents of Asia and Africa • Industrialized countries like England, Germany, and France will soon look to take over weaker countries that did not Industrialize. • People in Africa, India, South America, and China will be at the mercy of industrialized nations. • European nations begin to conquer and exploit weaker nations for land, people, and natural resources. • The emergence of Social Darwinism “survival of the fittest” legitimizes imperialism and slavery. • Today we refer to non-industrialized countries as the “third-world”- these countries are poor and underdeveloped
Adam Smith and “Laissez-Faire” Capitalism • Government should not interfere in the economy. • Believed in Supply and Demand • Competition between individuals is the key to economic success. • Competition drives prices down and leads to inventiveness. • Smith wrote the book “Wealth of Nations” which illustrates the ideas of Capitalism • Most “Western” countries adopt Capitalism as their primary economic policy
Karl Marx invents Communism • He wrote the “Communist Manifesto” explaining the basic ideas of Communism • Marx believed industrialization led to a world of “Haves” and “Have-nots” and huge social inequality • Believed Revolution by the working classes against the factory owners in society was inevitable due to their poor economic conditions. • Communism often supported by peasants and factory workers • Communists believe the government should control the means of production and distribute wealth to the people = Command Economy • People would work together and share in the wealth, everybody should make the same amount of money regardless of occupatoin
Reforms and Protests • Trade Unions (organized labor) develop to try and limit working hours and create safety regulations • Strikes and protests used by workers. • Eventually, laws will be passed on limiting Child Labor in factories • Creation of an eight hour work day • Minimum wage laws are passed • Environmental groups begin to form to protest factory pollution and deforestation.