- Slides: 24
The Industrial Revolution (1750’s - 1914)
The Industrial Revolution The period in world history in in which new technology spurred an economic change from farming to factories and simple hand tools to complex machinery that is the basis of the modern world economy from business manufacturing, energy, transportation systems, and urban metropolises. • Capitalism vs. Communism • Rural to Urbanization
Factors of Industrialism 1. Energy & Raw Materials 2. Technology & Inventions 3. Mechanization 4. Mass Production 5. Economic System 6. Transportation System 7. Labor 8. Urbanization +_________________ Modernization = $$$$$$$ & Power
The Industrial Revolution The evolution of the Industrial Revolution; What will be the next stage of advancement?
Where did the Industrial Revolution Begin? • By the mid 1700’s England had established itself as the strongest country in Europe. • An island nation with colonies around the world for trade and commerce. • Abundant amount of coal and iron. • London was the largest city in Europe. • Access to many natural resources. • Wealthy country with a national banking system.
Industrial Revolution Industrial – To make, manufacture. Strong. • Industrialism = Manufacturing = Factories • Examples: Planes, trains, automobiles. Revolution – The desire to change an existing condition for something else. • Revolution = Change = Transformation • Examples: agriculture to manufacturing; farms to factories; rural to urban.
Energy & Raw Materials The industrial revolution would not be possible without certain fuels and materials. • Coal – Solid carbon based fossil fuel. • Oil – Liquid carbon based fossil fuel. • Iron – Metal that can be molded. • Steel – Metal made from iron, only stronger. • Concrete – Building block material.
Energy & Raw Materials
Technology & Inventions • Technology improves the lives of people by making their life more productive and easier.
Inventors • Please click below to learn about the inventors and their contributions to the Industrial Revolution: https: //www. learnodonewtonic. com/industrial-revolution-inventors
Mechanization = Machines = Mechanics Mechanization are mechanical or electrical machines that make life easier and increase productivity. • Steam Engine • Combustible Engine • Jet Engine
Mass Production is the making of a lot or many goods, which reduces the price of the good as more are made. • Factory System – The place where goods are mass produced by machines and people. • Assembly Line – Method used to increase production with each worker focusing on a specific task.
Economic Systems Economics is the scarce distribution of goods and services. Economics determines the cost, pay, and value of goods and services. There are two primary types: Capitalism – The unequal distribution of wealth in which the government plays little to no part in business decisions. Communism – The equal distribution of wealth in which the government owns and controls the means of labor and production. Socialism – There are two types of socialism, which is often the middle economic system of capitalism and communism that often combine private and government partnerships. Sometimes called a mixed economy.
Economic Systems Capitalism = Free Market = Free Enterprise = Market System • Based on theories of Adam Smith who wrote the book The Wealth of Nations (1776). • Unequal distribution of wealth (Rich, Middle Class, Poor). • Laissez-faire – Minimal government control of business and labor. • Profit motive = $$$ = incentives to work hard • Competition keeps prices low and improves quality of goods and services. • Supply & Demand = Price; this is sometimes referred to as the Invisible Hand. • Private Property allows people and businesses to develop property as they wish. • Individualism allows people to choose what they want to sell or buy and what they would like to do for a job. Each person is on their own to accumulate wealth.
Capitalism Goods Services Rich Middle Class Poor Unequal Distribution of Wealth
Economic Systems Communism = Command = Collectivization = Community • Based on theories of Karl Marx who wrote the book The Communist Manifesto (1848), which was a critique of capitalism. • Equal distribution of goods and services to the people in order to end the exploitation of mankind. • Government ownership of all land, business, and labor. • Classless society = no rich, middle class, poor • Free education and health care provided by the government. • No competition = Government ownership • Government determines the price of goods and services. • Promotes Atheism, which is the belief in no god(s). • Violent overthrow of the wealthy to create equality.
Communism Classless = Equal society Everybody gets the same in order to create equality
Transportation Systems Transportation systems provide movement of people and goods. • Motorized Ships, Trains, Automobiles, and planes are the prime means of travel. • Decreases travel time; connects a country or continent.
Labor = work that people perform in order to accomplish a task. • Industrialism relies on unskilled or semi-skilled labor. • Because of unskilled or semi-skilled workers, it if often referred to as “cheap labor. ” • Immigrants, children, and women often were payed less to do the same tasks.
Urbanization Industrialization = Urbanization = Modernization Urbanization is the growth of cities and metropolises. • Skyscrapers, bridges, tunnels… • London, Paris, Berlin, Hong Kong, Seoul, NYC
Essential Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. How did the Industrial Revolution change human society? Would you identify the Industrial Revolution as more a political, economic, or social change? Explain why. Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in England? Identify three positive and three negative aspects of the Industrial Revolution. Name two inventions on slide 9 you think have been best for society? Identify two inventors on slide 10 you found interesting and explain what they did that you found interesting. Whose economic theories Adam Smith or Karl Marx do you find best for society? How could you differentiate an urban area from a rural area?