- Slides: 40
THE HUMAN REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS
THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Ø Reproductive System- the system of organs involved in producing offspring. Ø The male reproductive system includes both external and internal organs. Ø The two main functions of the male reproductive system are the production and storage of Sperm and the transfer of sperm to the female’s body during sexual intercourse. Ø Sperm- the male reproductive cell
THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM ØThe male reproductive system reaches maturity between the ages of 12 and 15. ØHormones produced in the pituitary gland stimulate the production of testosterone, the male sex hormone. ØTestosterone initiates physical changes that signal maturity. ØA physically mature male is capable of producing sperm for the rest of his life.
THE EXTERNAL MALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS ØThe testes, penis, and scrotum are involved in the process of reproduction ØTestes- two small glands that produce sperm. ØThese glands produce testosterone. ØTestes are located in the Scrotum. ØScrotum- an external skin sac. ØPenis- tube-shaped organ that extends from the trunk of the body just above the testes.
THE EXTERNAL MALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS ØComposed of spongy tissue that contains many blood vessels. ØBecomes enlarged and erect when blood flow to the penis increases. ØMales experience erections easily and frequently during puberty.
THE EXTERNAL MALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS ØThe penis releases semen, which is a thick fluid containing sperm and other secretions from the male reproductive system. ØAt the height of sexual arousal, a series of muscular contractions known as ejaculation may occur. ØFertilization- the joining of a male sperm cell and a female egg cell can result if ejaculation occurs during sexual intercourse.
EXTERNAL MALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS ØAt birth a male has a covering of loose skin, called foreskin, over the tip of the penis. Ø(Circumcision-often performed for religious or cultural reasons. ) ØSperm cannot live in temperatures high than that of normal body temperature. ØThe scrotum protects the sperm by keeping Ø the testes slightly below normal body Ø temperature.
EXTERNAL MALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS ØWhen a male begins to produce sperm, he may experience nocturnal emissions, or ejaculations. ØNormal function that relieves the buildup of pressure as sperm begin to be produced during puberty.
INTERNAL MALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS ØSperm are produced in the testes but the sperm must travel through several structures inside the body. ØVas Deferens- tubes that extend from each epididymis to the urethra. ØUrethra- the passageway through which both semen and urine leave the male body. ØSeminal Vesicles- sperm combines with a nourishing fluid produced by the seminal vesicles.
INTERNAL MALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS ØProstate Gland Cowper’s Glands- secretions from the prostate gland the Cowper’s Glands combine with the sperm-containing fluid to form semen.
CARE OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM ØMedical Checkups, hygiene protection, and self-examination ØGet Regular Checkups ØBathe Regularly ØWear Protective Equipment ØPerform Regular Self-Examinations ØPractice Abstinence
SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES ØThe primary means of transmission is sexual activity. ØThe benefit of Abstinence is the prevention of STDs ØChlamydia and Gonorrhea- bacterial infections that cause discharge from the penis or burning upon urination; both of which can damage reproductive health. ØCan be treated with antibiotics.
SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES ØSyphilis- a bacterial infection where a painless reddish sore appears at the site of infection. If left untreated syphilis can spread and damage internal organs. ØCan be treated with antibiotics. ØGenital herpes- a virus that causes periodically occurring blister-like sores in the genital area. ØMedication relieves symptoms, but the virus remains in the body for life.
PROBLEMS OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Ø Inguinal Hernia- a separation of tissue that allows part of the intestine to push into the abdominal wall near the top of the scrotum. Ø Straining the abdominal muscles or lifting heavy objects can cause a tear in the tissue. Ø Symptoms: a lump in the groin near the thigh, pain in the groin, or partial or complete blockage of the intestine (severe) Ø Surgery is usually necessary to repair the opening in the muscle wall.
STERILITY ØSterility- the inability to reproduce. Result of: Too few sperm (fewer than 20 million per milliliter of seminal fluid) Sperm of poor quality ØSterility can result from environmental hazards: exposure to X-rays (Radiation) Toxic Chemicals Lead
STERILITY ØHormonal imbalance, certain medications, and the use of drugs (steroids) can damage sperm. ØSTDs and mumps contracted as an adult can result in sterility.
TESTICULAR CANCER AND PROBLEMS OF THE PROSTATE ØAffects males of any age (most often between the ages of 14 and 40) ØFactors that increase the risk of developing testicular cancer: undescended testicle abnormal testicular development family history of testicular cancer ØWith early detection most testicular cancer is treatable through surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy.
TESTICULAR CANCER AND PROBLEMS OF THE PROSTATE Ø The Prostate gland can become enlarged as a result of an infection, a tumor, and age-related problems. Ø Presses against the urethra, resulting in frequent or difficult urination. Ø Symptoms may also include more serious conditions- Prostate cancer. Ø Prostate cancer screenings are usually done during routine physical exams for males over 50. Ø Early detection increases the chance of survival. Ø Treatment: surgery, radiation, and hormone therapy.
TESTICULAR EXAM Ø Check for any swelling on the scrotum skin. Examine each testicle with both hands. Ø Roll the testicle gently between the thumbs and fingers. Ø Find the epididymis and become familiar with this structure so you won’t mistake it for a lump. Ø Cancerous lumps usually are found on the sides of the testicle but can also appear on the front. Ø Although lumps do not always indicate the presence of cancer, be sure to consult a health care professional if you do find a lump.
THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Ø The female reproductive system has several functions: Ø Produces the female sex hormones and stores female reproductive cells called Ova. Ø The uterus nourishes and protects the fertilized ovum from conception until birth Ø Uterus- hollow, muscular, pear-shaped organ inside the female’s body
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM ØOvaries- the female sex glands that store the ova and produce female sex hormones. ØAt birth a female’s ovaries contain more than 400, 000 immature ova, or eggs. ØOne ova matures each month, beginning at puberty when the pituitary gland produces hormones. ovary
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM ØOvulation- the process of releasing a mature ovum into the fallopian tube each month. Ø The right ovary will release a mature ovum one month and the left ovary will release an ovum the next month.
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS Ø Fallopian tubes- a pair of tubes with fingerlike projections that draw in the ovum. Ø Cilia- hair-like structures that work along with muscular contractions in the fallopian tubes to move the ovum along. Ø Vagina- a muscular, elastic passageway that extends from the uterus to the outside of the body. Ø Sperm from the male enter the female reproductive system through the vagina.
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS ØIf sperm are present in the fallopian tubes, a sperm cell may unite with an ovum, resulting in fertilization. ØThe fertilization of an egg by a sperm produces a cell called a zygote. ØWhen a zygote leaves the fallopian tube it enters the uterus. ØIt then attaches to the uterine wall and begins to grow.
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS ØThe uterine wall prepares for the zygote by thickening and is rich in blood enabling the uterus to nourish the zygote. ØThe fetus will remain attached to the uterine wall until birth.
MENSTRUATION Ø In a mature female, each month the uterus prepares for possible pregnancy. Ø If pregnancy does not occur, the thickened lining of the uterus (endometrium) breaks down into blood tissue and fluids and pass through the vagina Ø (Menstruation- shedding of the uterine lining) Ø Menstrual cycle ends within five to seven days and the cycle starts over again. Ø Most females begin their menstrual cycle between the ages of 10 and 15. (predictable with growth and maturity)
MENSTRUATION ØIrregular cycle at first and can be influenced by poor nutrition, stress, and illness. ØSanitary pads or tampons are worn to absorb blood flow
CARE OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM ØGood hygiene is very important for maintaining health of the female reproductive system. ØMature females shed cells from the lining of the uterus causing a slight vaginal discharge ØBathe regularly during menstrual period, change tampons or sanitary pads (feminine deodorant sprays and douches not necessary if cleanliness is practiced-may cause irritation or infection)
CARE OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM ØPractice abstinence from sexual activity 100% effective in preventing pregnancy and STDs ØBreast self exam- Breast cancer is the most common cancer and second leading cause of death after lung cancer in women ØCheck breasts once a month
BREAST SELF-EXAM ØLie Down and place a pillow under the right shoulder ØPlace the right arm behind the head ØUse the fingers of the left hand to feel for lumps or thickening in the right breast. ØMove around the breast in a circle, then up and down while going over the entire breast area. ØExamine the left breast with the right hand.
BREAST SELF-EXAM ØUse the same technique to examine both breasts while standing, with one arm behind the head. ØIn a standing position, check the upper and outer parts of the breasts, toward the armpit. ØStanding in front of a mirror, inspect the breasts for any dimpling of the skin, changes in the nipple, redness, or swelling.
PROBLEMS OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM ØProblems related to menstruation can range from minor discomfort to life-threatening illness ØMenstrual cramps- sometimes occur at the beginning of a menstrual period. ØLight exercise or applying a heating pad to the abdominal area may help relieve symptoms. ØSevere or persistent cramping (dysmenorrhea) may be an indication that professional health services are required.
PROBLEMS OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM ØPremenstrual syndrome-a disorder caused by hormonal changes. ØSymptoms may be experienced one to two weeks before menstruation include: nervous tension, anxiety, irritability, bloating, weight gain, depression, mood swings, and fatigue. ØRegular physical activity and good nutrition may reduce the severity of symptoms.
PROBLEMS OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM ØToxic Shock Syndrome- bacterial infection that affects the immune system and the liver (can be fatal) ØTo reduce the risk of TSS, use tampons with the lowest absorbency and change tampons often. ØWarning signs of TSS include: fever, vomiting, diarrhea, sunburn-like rash, red eyes, dizziness, and muscle aches ØSeek health care immediately if you develop these symptoms.
PROBLEMS OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM ØInfertility and inability to conceive a child can have several causes: 1. Endometriosis- tissue that lines the uterus migrates and grows in the ovaries, fallopian tubes, the uterus, or the lining of the pelvic cavity. Treatment: pain medications, hormone therapy, surgery
PROBLEMS OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 2. Pelvic Inflammatory Infection (PID)- infection in the fallopian tubes, ovaries, and the surrounding areas of the pelvis. It can damage a female’s reproductive organs. ØPID is usually caused by Sexually Transmitted Diseases.
OTHER FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE DISORDERS ØVaginitis- caused by bacterial vaginosis, most common vaginal infection in women of child-bearing age. ØAccompanied by discharge, odor, pain, itching, or burning. ØIf not treated with antibiotics, vaginitis can sometimes lead to PID.
ØBlocked Fallopian Tubes leading cause of infertility ØMay result from PID, abdominal surgery, STDs, or endometriosis. ØOvarian cysts- fluid-filled sacs on the ovary. ØThese non-cancerous cysts usually disappear on their own, however, larger cysts may require surgery. OTHER FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE DISORDERS
OTHER FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE DISORDERS ØCervical, uterine, and ovarian cancer- Early sexual activity and STDs such as Human Papillomavirus (HPV) are related to an increased incidence of cervical cancer. ØRegular check-ups and pelvic exams are important for early detection and treatment.