The Human Brain Master Watermark Image http williamcalvin

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The Human Brain Master Watermark Image: http: //williamcalvin. com/Brain. For. All. Seasons/img/bonobo. LH-human. LH-via.

The Human Brain Master Watermark Image: http: //williamcalvin. com/Brain. For. All. Seasons/img/bonobo. LH-human. LH-via. TWD. gif

Cerebrum -The largest division of the brain. It is divided into two hemispheres, each

Cerebrum -The largest division of the brain. It is divided into two hemispheres, each of which is divided into four lobes. Cerebrum Cerebellum http: //williamcalvin. com/Brain. For. All. Seasons/img/bonobo. LH-human. LH-via. TWD. gif

Lobes of the Brain (4) OFrontal OParietal OOccipital OTemporal http: //www. bioon. com/book/biology/whole/image/1/1 -8.

Lobes of the Brain (4) OFrontal OParietal OOccipital OTemporal http: //www. bioon. com/book/biology/whole/image/1/1 -8. tif. jpg

Lobes of the Brain - Frontal O The Frontal Lobe of the brain is

Lobes of the Brain - Frontal O The Frontal Lobe of the brain is located deep to the Frontal Bone of the skull. • It plays an integral role in the following functions/actions: - Memory Formation - Emotions - Decision Making/Reasoning - Personality (Investigation: Phineas Investigation (Phineas. Gage) Modified from: http: //www. bioon. com/book/biology/whole/image/1/1 -8. tif. jpg

Lobes of the Brain - Parietal Lobe O The Parietal Lobe of the brain

Lobes of the Brain - Parietal Lobe O The Parietal Lobe of the brain is located deep to the Parietal Bone of the skull. • It plays a major role in the following functions/actions: - Senses and integrates sensation(s) - Spatial awareness and perception (Proprioception - Awareness of body/ body parts in space and in relation to each other) Modified from: http: //www. bioon. com/book/biology/whole/image/1/1 -8. tif. jpg

Lobes of the Brain – Occipital Lobe O The Occipital Lobe of the Brain

Lobes of the Brain – Occipital Lobe O The Occipital Lobe of the Brain is located deep to the Occipital Bone of the Skull. • Its primary function is the processing, integration, interpretation, etc. of VISION and visual stimuli. Modified from: http: //www. bioon. com/book/biology/whole/image/1/1 -8. tif. jpg

Lobes of the Brain – Temporal Lobe O The Temporal Lobes are located on

Lobes of the Brain – Temporal Lobe O The Temporal Lobes are located on the sides of the brain, deep to the Temporal Bones of the skull. • They play an integral role in the following functions: - Hearing - Organization/Comprehension of language - Information Retrieval (Memory and Memory Formation) Modified from: http: //www. bioon. com/book/biology/whole/image/1/1 -8. tif. jpg

The Nervous System

The Nervous System

How the nervous system works O Nervous system controls body functions from emotions, movements,

How the nervous system works O Nervous system controls body functions from emotions, movements, thinking and behavior

Nervous System = 2 parts O 1. Central Nervous System (CNS) – the brain

Nervous System = 2 parts O 1. Central Nervous System (CNS) – the brain and the spinal cord O 2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) – the smaller branches of nerves that reach that other parts of the body

PNS and CNS O PNS Conducts information from the bodily organs to the CNS

PNS and CNS O PNS Conducts information from the bodily organs to the CNS and take information back to the organs O All parts are protected in some way: brain by the skull and several layers of sheathing; spinal cord by the vertebrae; peripheral nerves by layers of sheathing

How are messages transmitted? O Messages to and from the brain travel along the

How are messages transmitted? O Messages to and from the brain travel along the nerves which are strings of long, thin cells called NEURONS O Neurons can fire over and over again, hundreds of times a minute O The neuron “fires” on an all-or-nothing principle – must be completely stimulated in order to send messages

Parts of the Neurons O 1. Cell Body: contains nucleus and produces the energy

Parts of the Neurons O 1. Cell Body: contains nucleus and produces the energy needed to fuel the activity O 2. Dendrites: short, thin fibers that stick out from the cell body which receive impulses from other neurons and send them to the cell body O 3. Axon – long fiber that carries impulses away from the cell body toward the dendrites O *Myelin sheath – insulates and protects the axon for some neurons O Multiple sclerosis – myelin sheath is destroyed

Neuron Connection O Space between neurons is called the SYNAPSE – junction between the

Neuron Connection O Space between neurons is called the SYNAPSE – junction between the neurons O Neuron transmits message to another neuron be releasing neurotransmitters – chemicals O Can excite the next neuron or inhibit

Types of Neurotransmitters O Norepinephrine – involved with memory and learning O Endorphin –

Types of Neurotransmitters O Norepinephrine – involved with memory and learning O Endorphin – inhibits pain O Acetylcholine – movement and memory; low dosages can lead to paralysis or Alzheimer’s disease O Dopamine – involved with learning, emotional arousal; low levels are linked to schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease O Serotonin – may result in depression

Neuron Activity O Each individual is either ON or OFF O Afferent neurons –

Neuron Activity O Each individual is either ON or OFF O Afferent neurons – sensory neurons, relay messages from the sense organs (including eyes, ears, nose and skin) to the brain O Efferent neurons – motor neurons – send signals from the brain to the glands and muscles O Interneuron – carry impulses between the neurons in the body

Voluntary and Involuntary Activities O Somatic Nervous System – refers to the part of

Voluntary and Involuntary Activities O Somatic Nervous System – refers to the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls voluntary activites O Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) – refers to the part of the nervous system that controls involuntary activities (heartbeat, stomach activity, pupil enlargement)

ANS has 2 parts O 1. Sympathetic nervous system prepares the body for dealing

ANS has 2 parts O 1. Sympathetic nervous system prepares the body for dealing with emergencies or strenuous activity O 2. Parasympathetic nervous system works to conserve energy and to enhance the body’s ability to recover

Assignment O Pick one of the following: O Autism O Dyslexia O Multiple Sclerosis

Assignment O Pick one of the following: O Autism O Dyslexia O Multiple Sclerosis O Alzheimer’s Disease O Parkinson’s Disease O Tourette’s Syndrome O Depression O Schizophrenia O Write a two to three page paper on the topic discussing O What the problem is O What the causes of the problem are O Possible cures for the disease – if any O Research being conducted on the problem