The Human Body Reading the Map CHAPTER 2
The Human Body: Reading the Map CHAPTER 2
VOCABULARY ANATOMY SUPERIOR PHYSIOLOGY INFERIOR ANATOMICAL POSITION ANTERIOR SUPINE POSTERIOR PRONE PROXIMAL TRENDELENBURG POSITON DISTAL FOWLER POSITION EXTERNAL PLANE INTERNAL TRANSVERESE PLANE SUPERFICIAL SAGITTAL/MEDIAN PLANE DEEP FRONTAL/CORONAL PLANE RADIOLOGY
Anatomy & Physiology Anatomy- The study of an organisms body structures and their locations. Physiology- The study of the functions of each body part. Label the following ex. As either Anatomy or Physiology What is the purpose of the tongue? Where are phalanges located? Where is the eardrum located? How do eyes communicate what you see to the brain? • Physiology • Anatomy • Physiology
Levels of Structural Organization Chemical – atoms combined to form molecules Cellular (Organelle) – cells are made of molecules Tissue – consists of similar types of cells Organ – made up of different types of tissues Organ system – consists of different organs that work closely together Organismal – made up of the organ systems
MAP THE HUMAN BODY Using standard anatomical terminology ensures that HC professionals have a common method of communicating and to avoid confusion when identifying structures. It enables you to describe the locations of structures in relation to other structures or locations in the body. It is also helpful and used when discussing something in front of a patient in order to prevent undue anxiety.
BODY POSITIONS To standardize the orientation for the study of anatomy, scientist developed the Anatomical Position. Other body positions are also important to know for clinical assessments and treatments in health care. Supine, prone, Trendelenburg, and Fowler’s.
BODY PLANES Plane- An imaginary line drawn through the body or organ to separate it into specific sections. TRANSVERSE- Divide superior and inferior SAGITTAL (Median)- Divide medial and lateral FRONTAL (coronal)- Divide anterior and posterior
DIRECTIONAL TERMS Used to locate structures and regions of the body relative to the anatomical position SUPERIOR- upper half of the body INFERIOR- bottom half of the body ANTERIOR- towards the front of the body POSTERIOR- toward the back of the body PROXIMAL- body parts close to a point of reference of the body DISTAL- body parts away from a point of reference
DIRECTIONAL TERMS EXTERNAL- on the outside INTERNAL- on the inside SUPERFICIAL- toward the body surface DEEP- away from the body’s surface
BODY CAVITIES Body Cavities house and protect organs. ANTERIOR CAVITY: Thoracic Cavity- heart and lungs Abdominal Cavity- digestive organs Pelvic Cavity- urinary and reproductive organs POSTERIOR CAVITY: Cranial Cavity- brain Spinal cavity- spinal cord
ANATOMICAL QUADRANTS HC professionals divide the abdomen into 4 quadrants. These quadrants are helpful in describing the location of abdominal pain.
RADIOLOGY: THE SCIENCE OF VIEWING THE BODY X-RAY: High energy radiation that penetrate the body and give 2 dimensional view of bones, air and tissues in the body. CT SCAN: narrowly focused x-ray beam that gives greater detail and a 3 dimensional view. MRI: imaging technique using high intensity magnetism to produce body images ULTRASOUND: uses sound waves to view body activities in real time.