The Heart and Lungs Importance of Blood Brings

  • Slides: 16
Download presentation
The Heart and Lungs

The Heart and Lungs

Importance of Blood • Brings oxygen, nutrients, and other necessary materials to your body

Importance of Blood • Brings oxygen, nutrients, and other necessary materials to your body cells and carries waste products away • Cardiovascular system- provides a pathway through which blood can carry materials throughout your body • The heart pumps blood through the network of arteries and veins called the cardiovascular system

The Four Chambers of Heart • Right atrium (upper) – receives blood from the

The Four Chambers of Heart • Right atrium (upper) – receives blood from the veins and pumps it to the right ventricle • Right ventricle (lower) – receives blood from the right atrium and pumps it to the lungs, where it is loaded with oxygen • Left atrium (upper) – receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it to the left ventricle • Left ventricle (lower- the strongest chamber) – pumps oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the body. The left ventricle’s vigorous contractions create our blood pressure.

The Heart

The Heart

Pulmonary System • Right side of heart pumps blood to the lungs (pulmonary circulation)

Pulmonary System • Right side of heart pumps blood to the lungs (pulmonary circulation) • Left side of heart pumps blood to rest of body • Right atrium fills with waste-rich blood, then contracts, pushing the blood into the right ventricle • Right ventricle fills and then contracts, pushing the blood into the pulmonary artery which leads to the lungs

Blood Vessels • Arteries – Carry blood away from the heart – Aorta- largest

Blood Vessels • Arteries – Carry blood away from the heart – Aorta- largest in body • Veins – – Carry blood to the heart Valves inside the veins prevent blood from flowing backward • Capillaries – distributes oxygenated blood from arteries to the tissues of the body – feeds deoxygenated blood from the tissues back into the veins

Blood Pressure • The force with which blood pushes against the walls of the

Blood Pressure • The force with which blood pushes against the walls of the blood vessels • 120/80 • Systolic (first number) – Force caused by the surge of blood that moves as a result of the contraction of the ventricle • Diastolic (second number) – Force recorded when the ventricles are relaxed • BP increases as you exercise, decreases after you relax from exercise (see chart) • Hypertension- high blood pressure (140/90)

Heart Disorders • Atherosclerosis- buildup of cholesterol and other fatty acids materials on artery

Heart Disorders • Atherosclerosis- buildup of cholesterol and other fatty acids materials on artery walls, which restricts the flow of blood • Heart Attack- when blood flow to part of the heart muscle is blocked. Can be caused from Atherosclerosis

Blood Disorders • Hemophilia – Blood does not clot • Leukemia – Cancer of

Blood Disorders • Hemophilia – Blood does not clot • Leukemia – Cancer of bone-marrow tissues that form white blood cells (produces large number of abnormal white blood cells- interferes white fighting disease)

Blood Disorders cont’d • Anemia – Too few red blood cells or too little

Blood Disorders cont’d • Anemia – Too few red blood cells or too little hemoglobin – Blood cannot carry as much oxygen as the body needs • Sickle-cell – Red blood cells curve into a sickle shape because of a flaw in the hemoglobin – Curved cells do not pass through capillaries easily, blocking the blood flow

Healthy Heart and Lungs • Avoid smoking – Can damage air passages and lungs

Healthy Heart and Lungs • Avoid smoking – Can damage air passages and lungs • Control your diet – RBC need iron to transport oxygen – Avoid straining both respiratory and circulatory systems • Exercise regularly – Can raise levels of HDL

Changes in Heart Rate

Changes in Heart Rate

Neural and Hormonal Effects Sympathetic vs Parasympathetic • Autonomic Nervous System • Sympathetic: increase

Neural and Hormonal Effects Sympathetic vs Parasympathetic • Autonomic Nervous System • Sympathetic: increase heart rate by releasing epinephrine or norepinephrine – Acceleration of the heart= tachycardia • Parasympathetic: slows heart rate by releasing acetylcholine – Slowing of heart rate= bradycardia

Who cares? • Exercise changes relationship between sympathetic accelerators and parasympathetic system • Leads

Who cares? • Exercise changes relationship between sympathetic accelerators and parasympathetic system • Leads to more involvement of vagus nerves (which carry 80% of parasympathetic fibers) • With increased exercise, heart rate slows (leads to lower RHR and AHR)

Environmental Stresses • • • Heat gain= elevated Heat loss= lowered Dry air= elevated

Environmental Stresses • • • Heat gain= elevated Heat loss= lowered Dry air= elevated Moist air= elevated Wind chill= lowered Altitude= partial pressure increase, causing increases heart rate