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THE GREAT WAR, 1914– 1918 MARCHING TOWARD WAR CH. 13 SECTION 1 IN EUROPE, MILITARY BUILDUP, NATIONALISTIC FEELINGS, AND RIVAL ALLIANCES SET THE STAGE FOR A CONTINENTAL WAR.
MAIN CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I 1) Militarism (arms race) 2) Alliance system 3) Nationalism 4) Imperialism 5) Assassination of the Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand of Austria. Hungary
MAP OF EUROPE PRE-WWI
CRISIS IN THE BALKANS A Restless Region • Many groups in Balkans win independence during early 1900 s from the Ottoman Empire • New nation of Serbia made up largely of Slavs • Austria-Hungary annexes Slavic region Bosnia and Herzegovina (1908) • Serbia outraged, sees itself as rightful ruler of these Slavic lands
EUROPE PLUNGES INTO WAR (13. 2) • Austria-Hungary’s declaration of war against Serbia set off a chain reaction within the alliance system. The countries of Europe followed through on their pledges to support one another. As a result, nearly all of Europe soon joined what would be the largest, most destructive war the world had yet seen.
THE GREAT WAR BEGINS • July 31, 1914: Russia announces full mobilization of its armed forces. • August 1, 1914: Germany, taking Russia’s mobilization as a defacto declaration of war, declares war on Russia. • August 3, 1914: Germany declares war on France. • August 4, 1914: Germany declares war on neutral Belgium and invades in a right flanking move designed to defeat France quickly. As a result of this invasion, Britain declares war on Germany.
THE GREAT WAR BEGINS • Nations Take Sides • By mid-August 1914, there are two sides at war throughout Europe: • Central Powers—Germany, Austria-Hungary; later joined by Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire • Allies—Great Britain, France, Russia; later joined by Japan, Italy (once a member of the Triple Alliance, but switched sides because Italians believed the war was unjustly started)
A BLOODY STALEMATE • As the summer of 1914 turned to fall, the war turned into a long and bloody stalemate, or deadlock, along the battlefields of France. This deadlocked region in northern France became known as the Western Front.
THE CONFLICT GRINDS ALONG • The Schlieffen Plan • Called for attacking and defeating France in the west and then rushing east to fight Russia. • Counted on the slow mobilization of Russian forces due to lack of railways. • Called for 39 days for the fall of Paris, and 42 days for the defeat of France. • By early September Germany had swept into France and reached the outskirts of Paris • September 5, 1914—At the First Battle of the Marne, Germany is forced to retreat. • With this defeat the Schlieffen Plan failed because Germany was then forced to fight a two front war. General Alfred Graf von Schlieffen
WAR IN THE TRENCHES • Conflict descends into trench warfare—armies fighting from trenches. • Battles result in many deaths and very small land gains. • Life in trenches is miserable, difficult, unsanitary. • New weapons only lead to more deaths. • The slaughter reached a peak in 1916. • February 1916: Battle of Verdun—Each side lost more than 300, 000. • July-November 1916: The Somme—Each side suffered more than 500, 000 casualties. • Only 5 miles were gained in each of these battles.
NEW WEAPONS OF THE WAR • poison Gas • chlorine and phosgene—both toxic substances that caused suffocation • mustard gas—a blistering agent that caused severe burns and blisters on the skin and stripped severely damaged the lungs. It sometimes took five weeks to die from mustard gas exposure. • • machine gun tank submarine airplanes
THE BATTLE ON THE EASTERN FRONT • Early Fighting • Eastern Front—site of main fighting along the German-Russian border. • Russians push into Austria and Germany, but soon forced to retreat. • Russia Struggles • Russia’s war effort was suffering by 1916; many casualties and few supplies. • The huge size of Russian army keeps it a formidable force and prevents Germany from sending more troops to the Western Front.
A GLOBAL CONFLICT CHAPTER 13. 3
GENERAL MAIN IDEA • World War I was much more than a European conflict Australia and Japan, for example, entered the war on the Allies’ side, while India supplied troops to fight alongside their British rulers. Meanwhile, the Ottoman Turks and later Bulgaria allied themselves with Germany and the Central Powers. As the war promised to be a grim, drawnout affair, all the Great Powers looked for other allies around the globe to tip the balance. They also sought new war fronts on which to achieve victory.
WAR AFFECTS THE WORLD • The Gallipoli Campaign • Allies move to capture Ottoman Dardanelles strait in February 1915. • Hope to defeat the Ottoman Empire, a Central Powers ally. • Also want to open a supply line through region to Russia. • Effort ends in costly Allied defeat.
WAR AFFECTS THE WORLD • Battles in Africa and Asia • Allies take control of German holdings in Asia and Africa. • Britain and France use their colonial subjects to help in war effort • America Joins the Fight • Germany seeks to control Atlantic Ocean to stop supplies to Britain. • Germany uses unrestricted submarine warfare, and ships near Britain are sunk without warning. • Germany halts this policy in 1915 after the sinking of the Lusitania angers the United States
RMS Lusitania arriving in New York on her maiden voyage arriving in New York in September 1907. Upon its sinking by a German U-boat on May 7, 1915, 1, 198 people died when the ship went down.
WAR AFFECTS THE WORLD • Germany renews unrestricted policy in 1917 in hopes to starve Britain quickly. • Renewal of policy angers the United States. • Zimmerman Telegram—effort to enlist Mexico in war against the United States—angers the United States. • The United States declares war against Germany in April 1917 joining the Allies.
WAR AFFECTS THE HOME FRONT • Governments Wage Total War • World War I becomes a “total war”—nations devote all resources to war. • Governments take control of the economy to produce war goods. • Nations turn to rationing—limiting purchases of war-related goods. • Propaganda—one sided information to build morale and support for the war. • Woman and the War • At home, thousands of women fill jobs previously held by men. • Many women also experience the war by working as nurses.
THE ALLIES WIN THE WAR • Russia Withdraws • Civil unrest in Russia forces Czar to step down from throne in 1917. • Communists soon take control of Russia’s government. • Russia signs a treaty with Germany in March 1918, pulls out of war. • The Central Powers Collapse • With Russia gone, Germany moves most forces to Western Front • Engage in major fighting; Allies force Germans to retreat. • Allies win war; armistice—end of fighting—signed November 1918.
THE LEGACY OF THE WAR • A High Price • War takes heavy toll; 8. 5 million soldiers dead, 21 million wounded • War devastates European economies, drains national treasuries. • Many acres of land homes, villages, towns destroyed. • Survivors suffer disillusionment and despair; reflected in the arts.
A FLAWED PEACE CHAPTER 13, SECTION 4
INTRODUCTION • World War I was over. The killing had stopped. The terms of peace, however, still had to be worked out. On January 18, 1919, a conference to establish those terms began at the Palace of Versailles, outside Paris. Attending the talks, known as the Paris Peace Conference, were delegates representing 32 countries. For one year, this conference would be the scene of vigorous, often bitter debate. The Allied powers struggled to solve their conflicting aims in various peace treaties.
KEY LEADERS COME TOGETHER • This group of leaders was known as the Big Four dominated the peace talks in Paris at Versailles.
WILSON’S PLAN FOR PEACE • Wilson proposes Fourteen Points—an outline for lasting world peace. • Calls for free trade and an end to alliances and military buildups • Promotes self-determination—right of people to govern their own nation • Envisions international peace-keeping body to settle world disputes
FOURTEEN POINTS 1. End of secret treaties 2. Freedom of the seas 3. Free trade 4. Arms reductions 5. Adjustment of colonial claims 6. Settlement of questions regarding Russian territory 7. Restoration of Belgium 8. Restoration of France’s territories including Alsace-Lorraine 9. Readjustment of Italy’s borders 10. Peoples of Austria-Hungary given selfdetermination 11. Serbia given access to the sea and can join with other Balkan states (Yugoslavia created). 12. Turkish portion of Ottoman empire sovereign, but other portions given self-determination. Dardanelles open to as shipping passage to all nations. 13. Independent Poland 14. League of Nations
THE VERSAILLES TREATY • Britain and France oppose Wilson’s ideas and want to punish Germany. • Allies and Germany sign an accord—the Treaty of Versailles—in June 1919. • Creates League of Nations—international organization to keep peace. • Blames Germans for war, forces Germany to pay damages (reparations) to nations. • League to rule German colonies until deemed ready for independence.
A TROUBLED TREATY
THE CREATION OF NEW NATIONS • The Versailles Treaty, other peace accords change the look of Europe • Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire all lose lands • Former Ottoman lands in Southwest Asia turn into mandates • New countries in southeastern Europe • Russia gives up land.
EUROPE PRE-WORLD WAR I
NEW EUROPEAN COUNTRIES POST WORLD WAR I Finland-land lost by Russia Estonia-land lost by Russia Latvia-land lost by Russia Lithuania-land lost by Russia Poland-restored from land lost by Germany Czecho and Russia slovaki a Hungary Austria Romania-gained land Yu go sla via
MANDATES IN AFRICA AND MIDDLE EAST 1. French Mandate of Syria 2. French Mandate of Lebanon 3. British Mandate of Palestine 4. British Mandate of Transjordan 5. British Mandate of Iraq 6. British Togoland 7. French Togoland 8. British Cameroon 9. French Cameroon 10. Ruanda-Urundi 11. Tanganyika 12. South-West Africa
“A PEACE BUILD ON QUICKSAND” • Treaty of Versailles creates feelings of bitterness on both sides • German people feel bitter and betrayed after taking blame for war • America never ratifies Treaty of Versailles • Many Americans oppose League of Nations and involvement with Europe • Some former colonies express anger over not winning independence • Japan, Italy criticize agreement; gain less land than they want