THE GILDED AGE Immigration and Urbanization VISUAL VOCABULARY
THE GILDED AGE: Immigration and Urbanization VISUAL VOCABULARY
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: SS. 912. A. 3. 2 Examine the social, political, and economic causes, course, and consequences of the second Industrial Revolution that began in the late 19 th century. SS. 912. A. 3. 6 Analyze changes that occurred as the United States shifted from agrarian to an industrial society. SS. 912. A. 3. 7 Compare the experience of European immigrants in the east to that of Asian immigrants in the west (the Chinese Exclusion Act, Gentlemen's Agreement with Japan). SS. 912. A. 3. 9 Examine causes, course, and consequences of the labor movement in the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries.
Gilded Age • A period of unbridled capitalism, with some business leaders becoming very wealthy through the power monopolies. • The Gilded Age was a time of rapid economic growth, but also characterized by corruption, unfair business practices and growing inequality.
Factors of Production Land plus natural resources Labor Capital Workers Machines, buildings, tools and money
Businesses Need Capital in Order to Grow Corporation: A group of people who act as a single entity Stock: A share in the company
Businesses try to “Corner Markets” Trusts: A group of companies managed by the same people Mergers: The combining of companies Monopolies: Total control of an industry by a single company Robber Baron: American businessman who became rich by unfair means
Industry spurs City Growth Urbanization: When people left their farms to work in factories.
Businesses need more workers (labor) Child Labor: Children often had to help support their families and went to work in factories Sweatshops: Workers were forced to work long hours for low wages and in dangerous conditions
Workers form Labor Unions Trade Unions: A union of skilled workers who organize for the purposes of setting fair wages Collective Bargaining: When unions represent workers in discussions with businesses.
Unions take on Big Business Strikes: A refusal to work as a form of protest in an attempt to get something from the employer Strikebreakers: Workers brought in to replace the striking workers
Industry Promotes Immigration Emigrate: Economic troubles caused people to leave their homelands Immigrant: Person who came to the United States for a better life.
Immigration spurs City Growth Tenements: A dwelling where several poor families would live, often in urban centers
Americans React to Immigration Nativism: the policy of protecting the interests of native-born against those of immigrants
Causes of the Gilded Age Economic: • Rapid economic growth • Vast wealth and great poverty Technological: • New technologies improve middleclass quality of life • Mass production makes material goods more affordable Social: • Industrial workers and farmers did not share in the new prosperity • Immigrants create a new social class
Effects of The Gilded Age: Industry Promotes Immigration
Effects of The Gilded Age: Industry Promotes Immigration “Old Immigrants: ” People who came to the U. S. before 1865 and were mostly from northern and western Europe (England, France, Germany, Holland). “New Immigrants: ” People who came to the U. S. after the Civil War and were mostly from southern and eastern Europe and southeast Asia (Italy, Poland, Ireland, China, Japan).
Effects of The Gilded Age: Nativist Movement Tries to Limit Immigration Chinese Exclusion Act 1882: Chinese workers were not allowed to come to America for 10 years.
Effects of The Gilded Age: Nativist Movement Tries to Limit Immigration Gentlemen’s Agreement: In 1907 the United States and Japan agreed to limit the number of Japanese immigrants. The Immigration Act of 1917: Immigrants had to be able to read and write in some language.
Effects of The Gilded Age: Workers form Labor Unions Knights of Labor: Largest Labor Union in the 1880 s American Federation of Labor (AFL): Union made up of various trade unions
Effects of The Gilded Age: Labor Unions Strike against Big Business Haymarket Riot: A labor protest rally near Chicago’s Haymarket Square turned into a riot after someone threw a bomb at police. Homestead Strike: An industrial lockout and strike ending up in a fight between strikers and private security agents. Pullman Strike: Railroad strike that disrupted rail traffic. The federal government’s response to the unrest was the first time that an injunction was used to break a strike
Effects of The Gilded Age: Government Steps in to Support Economy Injunction: Judicial order that prevents an individual or group from beginning or continuing to take action against another individual or group