The French Revolution Chapter 11 Causes of the

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The French Revolution Chapter 11

The French Revolution Chapter 11

Causes of the French Revolution n The French Revolution had two causes – one

Causes of the French Revolution n The French Revolution had two causes – one with deep roots in French society, one more immediate n n Deep roots – French society was built on inequality between three different estates, or social classes, and this caused many hard feelings Immediate – Problems in the French economy caused people to revolt and overthrow Louis XVI

The Three Estates n Three estates in French society n n n First estate

The Three Estates n Three estates in French society n n n First estate – clergy (leaders of the church), about 130, 000 people Second estate – nobles, about 350, 000 people Third estate – everybody else, commoners, about 75 to 80 percent of the population (about 1. 9 million people)

It just ain’t fair… n n n First estate – Owned about 10 percent

It just ain’t fair… n n n First estate – Owned about 10 percent of the land, didn’t have to pay the taille (France’s main tax), and received many privileges Second estate – Owned about 25 percent of the land, didn’t have to pay the taille, and also had many privileges Third estate – owned about 65 percent of the land, but many of them had no land at all HAVE TO PAY TAX!!

More Inequalities n n n Many in the third estate still had to pay

More Inequalities n n n Many in the third estate still had to pay fees to the second or first estates to use village facilities like flour mills, ovens, winepresses, etc. , and had to pay contributions to the clergy Many were unhappy with the privileges that the nobility had Many of the bourgeoisie, or middle class (third estate) were drawn to the ideas of the Enlightenment

Financial Crisis n Two problems in 1787 and 1788 n n Two bad harvests

Financial Crisis n Two problems in 1787 and 1788 n n Two bad harvests A slowdown in manufacturing As high as a third of the population was living in poverty French government continued to spend huge amounts on foreign wars, such as assisting the American colonies in rebelling against Great Britain

The Estates-General n n This was the French parliament, and hadn’t been called since

The Estates-General n n This was the French parliament, and hadn’t been called since 1614 – Louis XVI called them to raise new taxes Estates-General was composed of representatives from all estates n n First and Second estates had about 300 each Third estate had about 600 Still not in proportion Also, each estate got one vote, so the first and second could outvote third

The Estates-General n n n Third estate wanted to end tax exemptions for the

The Estates-General n n n Third estate wanted to end tax exemptions for the other two estates – likely to happen? Third estate demanded that every delegate get a vote, not one for the whole estate – Louis – “No dice. ” Third estate calls a meeting to draft a constitution

The Tennis Court Oath n n Third estate shows up for their meeting, and

The Tennis Court Oath n n Third estate shows up for their meeting, and they’ve been locked out of the meeting place Meeting is moved to an indoor tennis court – vowed not to leave until they had drafted a constitution (Tennis Court Oath) Louis prepares to use force to end the Third Estate, but a mob of Parisians storms the Bastille, a French prison – Louis can’t trust the national army Peasant rebellions and panic start spreading all over the country

The Tennis Court Oath

The Tennis Court Oath

Storming of the Bastille

Storming of the Bastille

The National Assembly n n August 4, 1789 – National Assembly votes to get

The National Assembly n n August 4, 1789 – National Assembly votes to get rid of privileges of nobles and clergy Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen – inspired by the United States Declaration of Independence and Constitution, this said that men had the right to “liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression. ”

Enlightenment Ideas in the Declaration n Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen

Enlightenment Ideas in the Declaration n Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen reflected Enlightenment ideas about the rights of men n n Freedom and equal rights for all men Access to public office (government) based on talent, not nobility Ended all exemptions to taxation All citizens could take part in making laws Freedom of speech and the press

Louis’ Reaction n n Louis stayed at Versailles all this time Refused to accept

Louis’ Reaction n n Louis stayed at Versailles all this time Refused to accept the Declaration and all other National Assembly changes October 5, 1789 – Thousands of Parisian women marched to Versailles to have a little chat with Louis These women brought Louis and Marie Antoinette, his queen, back to Paris for him to “show his support” for the National Assembly

Parisian Women Don’t Play

Parisian Women Don’t Play

Other Changes n n n Church would now be run by the government, and

Other Changes n n n Church would now be run by the government, and clergy elected by the people National Assembly wrote a new Constitution including a king, but he would not make the laws Louis XVI tries to escape Paris, but isn’t able to do so

A New Age Dawns

A New Age Dawns

Louis and Marie Antoinette n n n After watching Louis and Marie Antoinette being

Louis and Marie Antoinette n n n After watching Louis and Marie Antoinette being imprisoned by revolutionaries, German and Austrian monarchs were a little worried Louis had accepted the limited powers offered by the National Assembly, but knew he was still in trouble Suspecting that Austria would try to reinstate Louis XVI, France declared war on Austria

War! n War threw France into upheaval • Paris crowds attacked the king’s palace

War! n War threw France into upheaval • Paris crowds attacked the king’s palace and killed royal guards • Mobs killed and imprisoned nobles and priests accused of political crimes • Radicals took over the National Assembly

Constitutional Republic n A new National Convention met to draft a constitution for the

Constitutional Republic n A new National Convention met to draft a constitution for the formation of a new government – the king was out • Single national legislature • All men could vote – no property qualifications • New calendar adopted • New system of measurement, the metric system, adopted

What about Louis? n n The National Convention had to figure out what to

What about Louis? n n The National Convention had to figure out what to do with Louis XVI Radicals used some of Louis’ letters to other European monarchs to discredit him, look like he was plotting against the people of France December, 1792 – Louis is tried and found guilty of having “conspired against the liberty of the nation. ” Executed by the guillotine along with Marie Antoinette

Jacobins and Girondists n n Citizens of Paris had much enthusiasm for France becoming

Jacobins and Girondists n n Citizens of Paris had much enthusiasm for France becoming a republic – a democratic country with no king Debate over the country’s future raged in the National Convention • Jacobins – believed in radical change and, felt they were the voice of the people • Girondists – moderates who thought the revolution had gone far enough, wanted to protect the middle class n Over time, support moved toward the Jacobins

Reaction from the rest of Europe n n n European monarchs feared that democratic

Reaction from the rest of Europe n n n European monarchs feared that democratic revolutions would spread and put them in danger – formed alliances against the French The French armies worked to expand the borders of the nation to its natural boundaries, but suffered military defeats from other nations The French used conscription of male citizens to get enough soldiers to protect the country

Beginning of the Reign of Terror n n n The Jacobins and Girondists didn’t

Beginning of the Reign of Terror n n n The Jacobins and Girondists didn’t get along – Jacobins accused Girondists of trying to bring back the king, took over the National Convention Decided that they would crush all opposition as brutally as necessary This would be known as the Reign of Terror

Terror! n Neighborhood watch committees hunted down suspected traitors and turned them over to

Terror! n Neighborhood watch committees hunted down suspected traitors and turned them over to the courts • False statements by neighbors • Swift trials and harsh sentences • About 40, 000 people killed n Committee of Public Safety ruled France – Maximilien Robespierre ruled the committee

Maximilien Robespierre n n As France recovered in its war with Austria, some called

Maximilien Robespierre n n As France recovered in its war with Austria, some called for an end to the Reign of Terror – danger had passed Robespierre accused them of treason and had them sent to the guillotine Other leaders then turned against Robespierre and had him executed Jacobins lose power, Terror comes to an end

More Changes n Convention continued to govern, wrote a new constitution • Made property

More Changes n Convention continued to govern, wrote a new constitution • Made property qualifications for voters • Set up an executive council of directors – the Directory n n n Directory had to put down rebellions by royalists and radicals Directory did very little to resolve the grown gap between rich and poor Directory looked inept and incapable

The French Army and Napoleon n n French army was winning victories in the

The French Army and Napoleon n n French army was winning victories in the war with European monarchies Napoleon Bonaparte was a very capable French military leader Quick promotion, general at 26 Improved conditions for the French army as general Defeated the Austrians and won most of northern Italy

Emperor of France n n Napoleon, with huge popularity, then made his move After

Emperor of France n n Napoleon, with huge popularity, then made his move After fighting in Egypt against Egyptians and the British, Napoleon returned to France In October of 1799, Napoleon and other leaders seized government power from the Directory Napoleon would soon be emperor of France

Napoleon’s Empire

Napoleon’s Empire

The Consulate After Napoleon took power, he proclaimed a new constitution ◦ Supposedly set

The Consulate After Napoleon took power, he proclaimed a new constitution ◦ Supposedly set up a republic, but actually a dictatorship, under Napoleon ◦ This was known as the Consulate

Napoleon as Consul Napoleon wanted to bring order to the country Tried to keep

Napoleon as Consul Napoleon wanted to bring order to the country Tried to keep revolutionary reforms, but got rid of some ◦ Replaced elected officials with appointed ones Placed education under control of the national government Set up schools to create well-educated, patriotic government workers

Napoleon as Consul, cont. Napoleon also changed the country’s financial system ◦ Created national

Napoleon as Consul, cont. Napoleon also changed the country’s financial system ◦ Created national Bank of France ◦ Required all citizens to pay taxes ◦ Brought inflation and high prices under control 1802 – Napoleon named himself Consul for life ◦ This was overwhelmingly approved by a plebiscite, or popular vote

The Napoleonic Code Napoleon wrote a new code of law, which would become known

The Napoleonic Code Napoleon wrote a new code of law, which would become known as the Napoleonic Code Based on Enlightenment ideas Placed the needs of the state above the individual ◦ Equality of all citizens ◦ Religious toleration ◦ Advancement based on ability, not nobility ◦ Limited freedom of speech and press – censorship ◦ Women lost many political rights that they had gained in the revolution

Emperor of France Napoleon was very interested in building a strong and powerful France

Emperor of France Napoleon was very interested in building a strong and powerful France through military conquest Treaty of Amiens – peace between Britain and France, lasts about a year 1804 – Napoleon names himself Emperor of the French

Victories Napoleon had persuaded Britain and Russia to stop fighting France, and had defeated

Victories Napoleon had persuaded Britain and Russia to stop fighting France, and had defeated Italy and Austria Napoleon set his sights on invading Britain and making it part of his empire Napoleon wasn’t able to defeat the British navy, though ◦ Battle of Trafalgar – British defeat French navy off the southern coast of Spain, Napoleon can’t invade Britain

The Continental System Napoleon ordered all European nations he had conquered, plus Russia and

The Continental System Napoleon ordered all European nations he had conquered, plus Russia and Prussia, to stop trading with the British – the Continental System ◦ French navy would attack any ship headed to Britain British – all ships headed to Europe had to stop at a British port British navy maintained control of the seas, and gradually hurt French trade

Napoleon’s Success and Nationalism By 1812, French controlled much of Europe, directly or indirectly

Napoleon’s Success and Nationalism By 1812, French controlled much of Europe, directly or indirectly Easily crushed the Prussian army People under Napoleon’s rule many times didn’t like it – this resulted in nationalism ◦ Strong feelings of national pride and independence ◦ Revolts against French rule sprang up around the continent

Russia’s Threat to Napoleon Russia viewed Napoleon’s control of Europe as a threat The

Russia’s Threat to Napoleon Russia viewed Napoleon’s control of Europe as a threat The Continental System had hurt Russia resumed trade with Great Britain, in opposition to France Napoleon goes to war with Russia

The Invasion of Russia Napoleon assembles an army of 600, 000 troops to invade

The Invasion of Russia Napoleon assembles an army of 600, 000 troops to invade Russia ◦ Many conscripted, poorly trained Russians adopted a scorched-earth policy, denying Napoleon’s army the ability to live off the land French capture Moscow after the battle of Borodino, but can’t defeat the Russian army Russians set fire to Moscow, denying French food and shelter

Battle of Borodino

Battle of Borodino

The Retreat from Russian winter begins to set in ◦ French must find shelter

The Retreat from Russian winter begins to set in ◦ French must find shelter soon ◦ Napoleon delays, finally orders a retreat Russians harass and attack the French troops on the retreat About 400, 000 of the 600, 000 French troops die trying to get out of Russia

The Minard Map This map uses the lines to show the size and location

The Minard Map This map uses the lines to show the size and location of Napoleon’s army on its march into and out of Russia. The tan line shows the French headed in, the black line shows them

Napoleon’s Fall Russian defeat of Napoleon gives everyone else courage – Russia, Prussia, Spain,

Napoleon’s Fall Russian defeat of Napoleon gives everyone else courage – Russia, Prussia, Spain, England, and Austria ally against France ◦ Napoleon is defeated at Leipzig in October, 1813 By 1814, Napoleon surrenders and abdicates as emperor Napoleon is exiled to Elba, off the coast of Italy

The Comeback, and Final End Napoleon escaped captivity and returned to France in March

The Comeback, and Final End Napoleon escaped captivity and returned to France in March of 1815, getting broad support from people Announced that France didn’t want any more territory European governments didn’t trust him – Prussia, Great Britain, and the Netherlands defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in June, 1815 Napoleon is exiled again, for the last time

What did Napoleon do? Napoleon protected the revolution in France He also spread ideas

What did Napoleon do? Napoleon protected the revolution in France He also spread ideas such as equality, religious tolerance, and ability over nobility throughout Europe Set standards of government, reformed tax systems, promoted education, improved agriculture and industry However, many of the leaders in Europe wanted to undo what had happened, and prevent it from happening again

Peace in Europe

Peace in Europe

Congress of Vienna – End of the Napoleonic Wars Various diplomats would meet at

Congress of Vienna – End of the Napoleonic Wars Various diplomats would meet at the Congress of Vienna, in Austria This was done to find a way to keep the peace in Europe and to prevent further revolutions