THE FRENCH REVOLUTION 1788 1799 FRATERNITY LIBERTY EQUALITY

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THE FRENCH REVOLUTION 1788 -1799 FRATERNITY LIBERTY, EQUALITY, Liberty, Equality, Fraternity

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION 1788 -1799 FRATERNITY LIBERTY, EQUALITY, Liberty, Equality, Fraternity

ESTATES Old Order – Frances hereditary class system class born into, remain in. Estate

ESTATES Old Order – Frances hereditary class system class born into, remain in. Estate – all French people belonged to one of three. Determined legal rights and status First Estate – Clergy Catholic clergy (religious leaders) No taxes Lived in great style

ESTATES Second Old Estate – Nobles royalty, land owners @2% of pop. Own 25%

ESTATES Second Old Estate – Nobles royalty, land owners @2% of pop. Own 25% of land, don’t pay taxes Special social and political privileges (high positions in govt, church, army) Lived in great style Income from peasants that lived and worked their land

ESTATES Third Estate – Others Bourgeoisie – merchants, bankers, artisans, no power, high taxes

ESTATES Third Estate – Others Bourgeoisie – merchants, bankers, artisans, no power, high taxes Working class – low wages Peasants(farmers) 80% of population Pd. ½ of all taxes (tithe to church, feudal dues to nobles, land tax to king) 97% of all French

 Why no taxes for rich/powerful? – kept them on King’s side How did

Why no taxes for rich/powerful? – kept them on King’s side How did third estate feel? – 97% of population against the King

FACTORS OF THE REVOLUTION Financial problems Taxes – peasants pay most of taxes, nobility

FACTORS OF THE REVOLUTION Financial problems Taxes – peasants pay most of taxes, nobility and clergy exempt Debt Gov. gave $6 million to American Colonists to fight against England in Revolutionary War 50% of national budget paid for loans to fight England 25% paid for military expenditures 6% paid for parties, clothing, expensive lifestyle of the king and queen Crop failure – leads to starvation Growing inflation due to debt

FACTORS OF THE REVOLUTION Enlightenment John Locke’s ideas of natural rights to life, liberty,

FACTORS OF THE REVOLUTION Enlightenment John Locke’s ideas of natural rights to life, liberty, property Locke’s ideas of the right to overthrow government if not protecting your rights

FACTORS OF THE REVOLUTION Weak Leader Louis XVI & Marie Antoinette Very Young (19/18

FACTORS OF THE REVOLUTION Weak Leader Louis XVI & Marie Antoinette Very Young (19/18 yrs) Make bad decisions

FACTORS OF THE REVOLUTION Social 1 st Classes – and 2 nd have special

FACTORS OF THE REVOLUTION Social 1 st Classes – and 2 nd have special privileges 3 rd estate is 97% of population Bourgeoisie (middle class) of 3 rd Estate pay most of the taxes, lead the revolution

ESTATES GENERAL Meeting of 3 estates to make laws Called by Louis XVI to

ESTATES GENERAL Meeting of 3 estates to make laws Called by Louis XVI to get 1 & 2 Estates to pay taxes/raise $ 1 st time met in 175 yrs (1614) each estate gets one vote (third estates calls for individual vote) 1 & 2 band together to block 3 rd Estate leaves and forms the National Assembly

CITIZEN ACTION 3 Types of citizen action - taken by French Citizens during the

CITIZEN ACTION 3 Types of citizen action - taken by French Citizens during the revolution to change their government 1. Social Protests – citizens demonstrate against a government action or policy they want to change 2. Political Action – citizens write or change a law to change a government policy or action 3. Revolution – citizens attempt a radical change in their government usually through an overthrow of the existing government

NATIONAL ASSEMBLY – POLITICAL ACTION meet on Tennis Court Oath - vow to not

NATIONAL ASSEMBLY – POLITICAL ACTION meet on Tennis Court Oath - vow to not leave until write a constitution for France = Tennis Court Oath King orders 1 st and 2 nd estate to join National Assembly Why? Fear of what 3 rd Estate might accomplish 3 rd Estate now has majority vote King gathers troops for his protection – makes people think he’s going to break up the National Assembly

FRENCH REVOLUTION Storming of the Bastille – July 14, 1789 (like our 4 th)Revolution

FRENCH REVOLUTION Storming of the Bastille – July 14, 1789 (like our 4 th)Revolution Bastille – jail for political prisoners & where weapons held Bastille symbolizes injustices of Monarchy 3 rd Estates - storm jail and let prisoners out Symbolic beginning of the French Revolution, and Frances Independence Day

FRENCH REVOLUTION Declaration of the Rights of Man & Citizens (Part of French Constitution

FRENCH REVOLUTION Declaration of the Rights of Man & Citizens (Part of French Constitution Today) – Political Action Purpose to establish equality in France and abolish the class system Incorporated Enlightenment ideas Montesquieu’s ideas of separation of powers Rousseau’s belief in the will of the majority Locke’s beliefs in natural rights Thomas Jefferson and the Declaration of Independence Louis XVI rejects declaration

FRENCH REVOLUTION March on Versailles – Social Protest 6000 angry women march on Versailles

FRENCH REVOLUTION March on Versailles – Social Protest 6000 angry women march on Versailles Protesting against food shortages and price of bread Want king to move to Paris and accept the Declaration of the Rights of Man, and National Assembly Louis XVI arrested and forced to leave Versailles for Paris

FRENCH REVOLUTION Constitution of 1791 – Political Action Made France a Constitutional Monarchy Unicameral

FRENCH REVOLUTION Constitution of 1791 – Political Action Made France a Constitutional Monarchy Unicameral legislature (one house legislature) called National Convention King as executive Everyone equal, all legislators get a vote Delegates seated by their political beliefs

3 POLITICAL GROUPS IN THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY Left Radical Big change policies Support Democracy

3 POLITICAL GROUPS IN THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY Left Radical Big change policies Support Democracy Monarchy Jacobins Center Moderates Open to some change Support Constitutional Monarchy Plain Right Reactionary Want to return to past Support Absolute Emigres

DECLINE OF MONARCHY Jacobins start to gain control in 1792 – want a Republic

DECLINE OF MONARCHY Jacobins start to gain control in 1792 – want a Republic Louis XVI is tried before Convention and convicted of conspiring against the liberty of a nation Executed Austria by the guillotine and Prussia declare war on France – ***fearful of revolution spreading to Austria

REIGN OF TERROR Robespierre Jacobin – wants change from limited monarchy to republic Executes

REIGN OF TERROR Robespierre Jacobin – wants change from limited monarchy to republic Executes anyone related to monarchy (priests, nobles) Executes “traitors” – 40 K mostly commoners Killed by guillotine by others afraid of him killing them Death ended violence

COMMITTEE FOR PUBLIC SAFETY Neighborhood watch committees hunted down suspected traitors and turned them

COMMITTEE FOR PUBLIC SAFETY Neighborhood watch committees hunted down suspected traitors and turned them over to the courts Neighbor turned on neighbor, many innocent people executed

DIRECTORY New Constitution 2 House legislature 5 -man executive committee power more divided –

DIRECTORY New Constitution 2 House legislature 5 -man executive committee power more divided – sounds good? But is it? What challenges? Can’t make decisions, debate, but nothing accomplished Growing gap between rich and poor, many dissatisfied French people looked for leadership----------------→