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The Formulation of Conceptual Framework
Conceptual Framework § Is a graphical presentation of your concepts or ideas on the basic structure or components of your research as well as on the relationships of these elements with one another. § It is a graph or non-prose material, specifically, a schematic diagram that shows a well-ordered elements of the research. Giving a carefully constructed arrangement of the components of your study. § It is a broad outline or plan to give shape to your research. (Shields & Rangarjan 2013)
Purpose of Conceptual Framework § Conceptual framework shows the organization, order, and direction of your research study. § It is an essential initial activity of your research because by means of a schematic diagram, explained verbally as well, it enables the readers to obtain a general understanding of the research.
Purpose of Conceptual Framework § It gives people a notion on the research activities you want to perform, on the manner you want to carry these activities out, and on the knowledge you have to prove your familiarity with your research topic or research problem. § It also serves the purpose of clarifying concepts and their relationships with one another in a research study.
Concept Map § Made up of varied figures: lines, circles, boxes, and other marks or symbols representing your concepts on these varied features of your research—research question, review of related literature, research methodology, and variables, among others. § A conceptual framework looks like a map showing the main features of a plan or project plus the relationship between or among the features or variables in the research.
Example of Conceptual Framework Research Problem or Topic: “Improving Critical thinking through Systemic Functional Grammar”
Example of Conceptual Framework Systemic Functional Grammar or SFG is a modern language theory which states that man’s critical thinking increases whenever he uses language for these reasons: first, for ideational function or for knowledge acquisition; second, for interpersonal function or creating human relationships, and third, for textual function or for strategic and coherent expression of ideas. In this case, the independent variables are the SFG components (ideational, interpersonal, and textual functions) and the dependent variable is critical thinking. Here is the conceptual framework to present the concepts underlying this study. (Ravich & Riggan, 2012)
A Sample of Conceptual Framework Ideational Function Interpersonal Function Systematic Functional Grammar Critical Thinking Textual Function
Conceptual Framework vs. Theoretical Framework ü All your plans, concepts, or ideas about the many aspects of your research are shown and clarified graphically and verbally in the conceptual framework. ü There is this other part of your research paper, called theoretical framework that gives and explains theories, principles, generalizations, and research findings, which have some connection to your research study.
Conceptual Framework vs. Theoretical Framework ü Conceptual framework enables the readers to clearly see in their minds the basic structure of the research and the relationships of variables and other factual things involved in the study. ü Theoretical framework, on the other hand, makes people know and understand evidence-based truths, concepts, speculations, and assumptions underlying each aspect of the research and the relationships of these research features with one another.
Pointers in Writing a Conceptual Framework 1. Familiarize yourself with the objective of the conceptual framework. 2. Base the contents of the conceptual framework on your own understanding of the elements and of the relationships of the research features.
Pointers in Writing a Conceptual Framework 3. See to it that all aspects of the conceptual framework are related to the objective of the research. 4. Let others read your conceptual framework for comments or feedback for improvement purposes.
The List of Research Hypotheses
Hypothesis –is a tentative explanation or an answer to a question about variables, their relationships, and other facts involved in the research. A hypothesis has to be tested through analytical investigation to prove how true or false it is. (Creswell 2014; Russell 2013)
Purposes of Research Hypotheses • They guide you on which aspect of the research to focus on. • They provide opportunities to prove the relationship between variables. • They give the right direction of the research.
Purposes of Research Hypotheses • They outline your thoughts on your manner of summarizing the results and of explaining the conclusions. • They push for an empirical study to prove the existence of relationship of variables and the effects of independent variable on the dependent variable.
Hypotheses vs. Research Questions § Their difference lies in the amount of stock knowledge you have about the focus of your study. § If you know much about the variables or have lots of knowledge about other factual data involved in the research through your review of related literature, you can formulate hypotheses. Otherwise, form research questions.
Categories of Hypotheses Null hypotheses § Symbolized by Ho, which states the absence of relationship between the independent and dependent variables. § It is therefore a statement to disprove the fact that the independent variable (treatment, intervention, or condition) has an effect on the dependent variable.
Categories of Hypotheses Alternative hypotheses § The opposite of null hypotheses § It is the symbolized by Hi § The alternative hypothesis states the relationship between the independent and the dependent variables and the fact that the first affects the second one. (Morgan 2014; Thomas 2013)
Types of Hypotheses 1. Theory-driven vs. Data-driven hypotheses ü A hypothesis that is based on existing theory to explain the relationship of variables and the effects of one variable on the other variables is theory-driven. But if it is based on the findings of previous research studies, it is a data-driven hypothesis.
Types of Hypotheses 2. Directions (one-tailed) vs. Non-directional (two-tailed) hypotheses ü Directional hypotheses state the relationship of two variables as well as of the relationship of these variables. Non-directional hypotheses, on the other hand, state the relationship of variables but not on the direction of the relationship.
Types of Hypotheses 3. Descriptive vs. Causal hypotheses ü A statement specifying the relationship between two variables due to the influence of something is a descriptive hypothesis; due to cause-effect relationship, it is a causal hypothesis. True experimental or quasiexperimental research such as a correlation study uses causal hypotheses; nonexperimental research uses descriptive hypotheses.
Guidelines in Formulating Hypotheses 1. Express your hypotheses in a declarative sentence. 2. Support your hypotheses with ideas based on theories, known facts, previous studies, or your own experience and wisdom. 3. Establish a logical relationship between the hypotheses and the research problem.
Guidelines in Formulating Hypotheses 4. Have your hypotheses predict the nature of relationship between or among variables. 5. Ascertain the possibility of having some means of testing, analyzing, and investigating your hypotheses. 6. Avoid wordiness by using clear, exact, or specific language in stating the hypotheses.
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