- Slides: 54
THE ELEMENTS OF FICTION
Elements of Plot
Plot Diagram 3 2 1 4 5
Definition of Plot • Plot is the action or sequence of events in a story. • In a well-written plot, one event leads to another like stairs in a staircase.
Basic Parts of Plot • Exposition • Conflict • An additional element of plot! • Rising Action • Climax • Falling Action • Resolution
PLOT=Action • Plot is the action of the story. • It is a series of related events that the author describes from the beginning of the story to the end of the story. • Most plots follow chronological order. • This is TIME order; plots are described in the order in which they occur.
PLOT DIAGRAM • You can keep track of the plot using a tool called a plot diagram. • This is an easy way to keep track. • However, there is no absolute formula for handling each of the parts of the story.
Exposition • The exposition (or opening) is the first part of the plot. • Here the author establishes the setting, introduces the characters, gives any background information, and introduces the problem, or conflict.
Rising Action • The rising action is a series of conflicts or struggles that build a story or play toward its climax. • In most stories, the characters do not solve their problems on the first try. As they struggle to solve their problems, tensions rise.
Climax • This is the turning point or high point of the story. • Usually the main character comes face to face with a conflict and will begin to think of a way to solve it. • The main character will change in some way.
Falling Action • All loose ends of the plot are tied up. • The conflict(s) and climax are taken care of and the author describes how the problem was solved.
Resolution • The resolution comes after the falling action and brings the story to a reasonable ending.
The Plot Diagram
Elements of Conflict
Conflict • Conflict is the struggle or problem that triggers the action/events in a story. • Conflict occurs after the exposition and before the rising action begins • Five types of conflict are recognized throughout literature: • • • Person Person vs. vs. vs. Person Self Nature Society Fate
Person vs. Person A conflict between two or more people. • Example: two friends get in an argument and stop speaking to each other.
PERSON VS. SOCIETY A conflict between a person and the laws or beliefs of a group. • Example: a person goes to the Capital and protests a new law.
PERSON VS. NATURE • Example: a hiker gets lost in the A conflict mountains. between a person and an element of the natural world.
PERSON VS. SELF A conflict within a person. • Example: an alcoholic struggles to overcome his addiction.
PERSON VS. FATE • Example: an ancient Greek hero A conflict fights Poseidon, the god of the between a sea. person and something that seems out of their control.
WHAT KIND OF CONFLICT IS IT? • A family loses its home in a hurricane.
WHAT KIND OF CONFLICT IS IT? • A man blames God for the death of his wife, so he stops attending church and praying.
WHAT KIND OF CONFLICT IS IT? • A recent high-school graduate is struggling to decide which college to go to.
Point of View
First Person Point of View • In first person, the story is told by one of the characters. • The reader only knows the thoughts and feelings of that character. • First person pronouns are often clues… • I, me, my, we, our, etc.
First Person Point of View • A first person narrator is often used when the story is told from the perspective of the main character. • This allows the reader to understand the actions of the main character from his or her point of view. • The drawbacks of the first person narrator include only have one perspective to make judgments. The narrator might be unreliable.
First Person Narrator: Example
First Person Narrator: Example
Third Person Point of View • The POV is often called • All characters have limited omniscient privacy except for because the story is told one. by a narrator who only • This POV gives the knows the thoughts and impression that we feelings of ONE are very close to the character. mind of that ONE • The pronouns he, she, character, though and they are often used. viewing it from a distance.
Third Person POV: Example
Third Person Omniscient POV • This story will be told by • The omniscient a narrator who is not a narrator can enter character in the book. the minds of • This narrator is “Godcharacters and like” because he/she knows everything knows the thoughts and that is going on in feelings of all characters. the present, past, and future.
Third Person Omniscient POV Example
Elements of Character
Narrator • This is a person or character actually telling the story. He or she know background information and can fill in important details.
Characterization • Techniques an author uses to develop the personality of a character.
Dialect • A form of language that is spoken in a particular place by a particular group of people.
Dialogue • Words spoken by a character • Found in quotation marks
Protagonist • This is usually the main character in a story. • He or she is central to the action.
Antagonist • This is the person, thing, or force working against the protagonist. • Another word to describe this character is foil.
Static Character • A character that stays the same throughout the course of the story. He or she does not change or learn a lesson. • Also called a flat character.
Dynamic Character • A character that changes throughout the course of a story. This character will learn a lesson from his/her experiences. • Also known as a round character.
Main Character • This is an important character that the story cannot go on without.
Minor Character • A character that is not important. The story can go on without him or her.
Genre • A category of literature characterized by similarities in subject matter.
Mood • The feeling a literary work gives to readers.
Author’s Purpose • An author’s reason for creating a piece of writing. • It may be to… • Explain • Persuade • Entertain
Theme • The statement about life the author is trying to teach the reader. Also, referred to as the moral.
Symbol • A person, place, thing, or event used to represent something else. Common Symbols in Literature • • • • Dove--peace Ice--death Spring--youth, birth, life Water--birth, rebirth Winter-- death, dying, old age Eagle--freedom, liberty, strength Skull--death Rose--love, beauty Crown--wealth, royalty Wedding ring--love, commitment Sunrise--new start, beginning Full moon--danger, weirdness Autumn--middle age, maturity
Author’s Style • The way the author uses words, phrases, and sentences to express him/herself. • Can include word choice and sentence structure
Style: Example 1
Style: Example 2
Foreshadowing • When the author gives clues or hints about what will happen later in a story.
Flashback • When the author interrupts the story to give necessary background information on character, setting, or plot.
Dialect: Comma Gets a Cure • Dialect 1 • Male actor, Jewish, born 1975, Manhattan • http: //web. ku. edu/~idea/no rthamerica/usa/newyork/ne wyork 13. mp 3 • • Dialect 2 • Tennessee, Caucasian female, born 1979, university student • http: //web. ku. edu/~idea/no rthamerica/usa/tennessee/t ennessee 8. mp 3 • Dialect 4 • White male, college student, age 22 • http: //web. ku. edu/~idea/ europe/ireland 12. mp 3 Dialect 3 • Native American female, college student • http: //web. ku. edu/~idea/no rthamerica/usa/southdakota 1. mp 3