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The Eastern Front in WWI 17. 08. 1914 -03. 1918 Ilkka Saarinen & Totti Lampisjärvi
Belligerents: a. The Russian Empire (later the Russian Republic, Russian SFSR) and Romania (1916) versus • The German Empire, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria.
Introduction a. Eastern Front around 1600 km long, stretching from Saint Petersburg and the Baltic in the North to the Black Sea in the south. b. Different warfare compared to the Western Front. c. Opening battle the Battle of Stallupönen. d. 1914 -1918
Battles There were numerous battles going on on the Eastern Front from 1914 -1916. These include: a. Battle of Stallupönen (first battle) b. Battle of Tannenberg (significant) c. Battle of Galicia a. • • Battle of Gumbinnen First and Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes Battle of Bolimov Battle of Lake Naroch Battle of Lutsk VS.
Battle of Stallupönen (Present day Nesterov) a. This is a significant battle because this was the first military action that was seen on the Eastern Front. b. The battle was between Paul von Rennenkampf's men (Russia - 200, 000 troops) and Hermann von Francais' men (Germany - 40, 000 troops). c. This battle ended in a minor victory for Germany and did not affect Russia as a strength significantly (yet). CHECK THAT MUSTACHE!
The Battle of Tannenberg 1914 a. 23 -30. 08. 1914 • Complete defeat and demoralization of the Russians(~78, 000 killed or wounded, whereas only 5, 000 Germans killed). • Early phases 23 -26. 08. • Main battle 26 -30. 08. • Demoralised the Russian armies completely. • http: //www. youtube. com/wa tch? v=y 7 qb. Zaf_ol. Y
The Battle of Galicia (1914) a. Russia invaded the Austro. Hungarian province of Galicia. b. They won, and ruled Galicia for almost a year. c. Contributed to the decision made by the Central Powers to concentrate on the Eastern Front starting in 1915.
1915: The Central Powers Attack a. The Central Powers launched a major offensive in 1915 against the Russians. b. Russians retreated, more due to lack of sufficient weapons than lack of knowledge or numbers. c. Russians pushed back hundreds of kilometers from Ger/Aus-Hun borders, advance was stopped as the threat from Russia was gone. d. Front stayed more or less the same until 1917.
1916: Limited Russian Success a. The Russians, having received more and newer weaponry, attacked. b. Larger military concentration/population than Germany c. June 1916: General Brusilov started an offensive that went 5070 km into Austria-Hungary, capturing hundreds of thousands of prisoners, and weaponry. d. Ended in September due to reinforcements coming in from the west. e. Romanians successful at first, but then overthrown by superior weaponry and lack of support from Russians.
The Eastern Front (Provisional Govt) a. Following the February Revolution, the government of Alexander Kerensky needed a victory to raise support for the war. b. The Kerensky offensive in July 1917. c. Early successes, complete failure later due to lack of discipline and morale. d. Complete halt by July 16 th, followed by retreat.
The Eastern Front (Communist) a. Despite wanting to end the war, Lenin did not want to accept the harsh German peace terms. b. The Germans started marching across Ukraine more or less with impunity. c. Lenin was in essence forced to agree to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. d. The war on the Eastern Front was over (3 March 1918 - signing of Brest. Litovsk).
Main Sources BBC - History: World War One http: //www. bbc. co. uk/history/worldwars/wwone/ First World War. com - The Eastern Front http: //www. firstworldwar. com/battles/ef. htm The War Times Journal - The Eastern Front 1914 -1917 http: //www. richthofen. com/ww 1 sum 2/