The Dynasties of Ancient Egypt
Vocabulary Words • hieroglyphics • vizier • papyrus • heir • pyramid • annex • prosperity • nome • pharaoh
Hieroglyphics: A writing system in which pictures or symbols to stand for sounds, words, and ideas.
Papyrus: Paper like material on which ancient Egyptians wrote.
Pyramid: Burial place for ancient Egyptian rulers.
Prosperity: Economic success
Vizier: Chief adviser to a king.
• Heir: A person who has the right to another person’s property or title.
• Annex: To add on
. Nome: Ancient Egyptian district
Pharaoh: Ancient Egyptian kings and queens
The Early Period • The Early Period includes Dynasties 1 and 2 u. Egyptians developed irrigation(supply of water to farms) systems and invented plows to be pulled by animals.
The Early Period Started using hieroglyphics It was used on monuments and temples It was written by scribes
The Early Period • At first soot was mixed with water to serve as ink. Important documents were written with ink made from red powder.
The Three Main Periods OLD KINGDOM MIDDLE KINGDOM NEW KINGDOM
Give 3 achievements of The Early Period.
The Old Kingdom Also known as ‘The Age of the pyramids’ Pyramids were built as tombs for ancient Egyptian rulers. The first pyramid was built for King Zoser
The Old Kingdom Egyptians developed step pyramids to help the kings reach the afterlife.
The Old kingdom u. The Giza pyramid was built for King Khufu. u. As many as 100, 000 farmers may have worked on pyramid
The Old Kingdom • Archaeologist • Egypt’s prosperity believed ancient declined(reduced) Egyptians used because Egyptian ramps to help them raise blocks to each rulers competed with level of the pyramid. local rulers for power.
• Why is the Old Kingdom known as the age of pyramids? • Which king was the first pyramid built for? • Why did ancient Egyptians build step pyramids? • Why did Egypt’s prosperity decline (reduce) in The Old Kingdom?
The Middle Kingdom Origin was in Thebes Started the Dynasty of Mentuhotep II
MENTUHOTEP II Egypt began to expand its territory Brought back Egypt’s economic and cultural glory Returned authority back to the central government.
AMENEMHET • He had been the vizier of Mentuhotep IV • Experts believed that Mentuhotep IV did not have an heir, that’s why Amenemhet took over as king.
AMENEMHET Moved the capital city back to Memphis. Arts, architecture and literature developed Annexed Nubia to Egypt.
The Middle Kingdom • Egypt had a long period of prosperity in The Middle Kingdom.
Hyksos • Invaders (Attackers) from the Fertile Crescent who gained control of Egypt.
Hyksos They introduced: 1. Horses 2. Horse drawn chariots 3. New weapons 4. Building for defense
• The changes introduced by the Hyksos helped Egypt expand during The New Kingdom.
• Give two achievements of Mentuhotep? • Who annexed Nubia to Egypt? • What are some things that the Hyksos introduced to Egypt?
The New Kingdom • Egypt became the world’s strongest power. • The Hyksos were driven out of Egypt. • Egyptians developed a full time standing army.
• Egypt developed a great empire and reached the height of its power under Thutmose III.
Amenhotep IV Brought great changes to Egypt. Declared that only one deity (Aton) should be worshipped. Changed his name to Akhenaton (Servant of Aton)
• His changes brought unrest to Egypt. • Some Egyptians feared that worshipping Aton might anger the other gods. Akhenaton Nefertiti
• Allowed Egyptians to worship the old deities. • After Dynasty 20, Egypt spilt into smaller parts.
• _________ asked all Egyptians to worship one deity. • Why did Amenhotep IV (Akhenaton)’s rule bring religious unrest? • What change did King Tutankhamen bring to Egypt? • When did Egypt split into smaller parts?