The Digital World vs The Real World Computers

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The Digital World vs The Real World • Computers “speak” in terms of the

The Digital World vs The Real World • Computers “speak” in terms of the binary language (“ 1” and “ 0”) which represent on and off pulses of electricity. • Digital is very discreet - either the pulse is there or it isn’t. • Our world is not discreet. We “speak” and hear along a continuous analog wave. • Our language is not discreet. What humans recognize as language must be converted to machine language.

The Digital World vs The Real World • A “machine cycle” is the amount

The Digital World vs The Real World • A “machine cycle” is the amount of time that it takes for a computer to: – Fetch and instruction from RAM (which has been put there as an input process from our world) – Decode the instruction into machine language – Execute the instruction inside of the ALU – Return the result back to RAM (which is then returned to us as an output process by the OS) • Measured in terms of MHz or MIPS (millions of instructions per second)

Classification of computer systems • Microcomputers • Mainframes • Supercomputers

Classification of computer systems • Microcomputers • Mainframes • Supercomputers

Microcomputers • Personal computer: single-user computer. Desktop model, laptop, notebook, subnotebook, Personal Digital Assistants

Microcomputers • Personal computer: single-user computer. Desktop model, laptop, notebook, subnotebook, Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) • Workstations: special PCs designed to support applications that require more power than ordinary personal computing. • Embedded: microcomputer is embedded inside of another machine. • Convergent Technologies • Network computers

Supercomputers • Usually several large integrated computers. Used primarily in defense and scientific organizations

Supercomputers • Usually several large integrated computers. Used primarily in defense and scientific organizations to process enormous amounts of data extremely fast. • Finding more use in traditional transaction environments.

Mainframe • Large centralized computers. Normally used to process operational business transactions. Some firms

Mainframe • Large centralized computers. Normally used to process operational business transactions. Some firms may have more than one mainframe. • Usually supports hundreds or thousands of users. • Large data storage ability