- Slides: 14
The Development of Health Education and Health Promotion.
Outline: � Key words, terms, and definitions � Health education � Health promotion � Relationship between health education and health promotion � Development of health education/promotion in the Unite States (U. S) � Conclusion
Key words, Terms, and Definitions � Health: “the state of complete mental, physical, and social well being not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” (WHO, 1947, p. 1) � Community Health: “the health status of a defined group of people and the actions and conditions to protect and improve the health of the community” (Green & Mc. Kenzie, 2002, p. 99) � Disease Prevention: “the process of reducing risks and alleviating disease to promote, preserve, and restore health and minimize suffering and distress” (Joint Committee, 2001, p. 99)
Key words, Terms, and Definitions (continue) � Public Health: “is the science and art of protecting and improving the health of communities through education, promotion of healthy lifestyles, and research for disease and injury prevention” (Association of Schools of Public Health, n. d. , ¶ 1) � Global Health: “health problems, issues, and concerns that transcend national boundaries, may be influenced by circumstances or experiences in other countries, and are best addressed by cooperative actions and solutions” (IOM, 1997, p. 3)
Health Education Activity: What is health education? ? Definition: “any combination of planned learning experiences based on sound theories that provide individuals, groups and communities the opportunity to acquire information and the skills needed to make quality health decisions” (Joint Committee, 2001, p. 10)
Health Education � “‘Traditional’ health education was often criticized for its narrow focus on information provision based on the assumption of a simple causation relationship between knowledge and behaviour” (Naidoo &Wills, 2009, p. 58) � Emphasis on individual responsibility victim-blaming feel guilty � Although, it might be factors beyond their control that prevent them form making health changes.
Health Promotion Definition: “any planned combination of educational, political, environmental, regulatory, or organizational mechanisms that support actions and conditions of living conducive to the health of individuals, groups, and communities” (Joint Committee, 2001, p. 101)
Health Promotion � Health is viewed as a collective responsibility of society, not just the individuals’. � Involves public policy changes and community actions to enable people to make changes in their lives. � “includes increasing individual knowledge about the functions of the body and ways of preventing illness, raising competence in using the health care system, and raising awareness and strengthening community action about the political and environmental factors that influence health” (Naidoo & Wills, 2009, p. 63)
Relationship between Health Education and Health Promotion � Health promotion is an umbrella term incorporating aspects of health education. However, the two terms are often used interchangeably.
Development of Health Education/Promotion in the US Late 19 th -mid 20 th century: � First public health revolution. � Was aimed at controlling the harm (morbidity and mortality) that came from infectious diseases. Mid 1950 s: � Many of the infectious diseases were under control � Focus shifted from infectious diseases to major chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer and strokes.
Development of Health Education/Promotion in the US Mid-1970 s: � Recognized that health promotion and disease prevention played the major role in reducing morbidity, saving lives, and reducing health costs. � A shift from the traditional medical model to lifestyle and environmental strategies that emphasized prevention was the focus of the first publication of ‘Healthy People’ in 1979.
Development of Health Education/Promotion in the US 1980 s: � A comprehensive national agenda for prevention had been developed with specific goals for the first time. The objectives were divided into three main areas—preventive services, health protection, and health promotion. � Even though not all objectives were reached, the planning process highlighted the value of setting goals and listing specific objectives to help measure progress.
Development of Health Education/Promotion in the US This led to the practice of developing health objectives each decade (Healthy People 1990, 2000, 2010) 2010: Healthy People 2010 will guide the U. S. public health and health education practice through 2020. Its vision is “a society in which all people live long, healthy lives” (U. S Department of Health and Human Services, 2010)
Conclusion � We cannot appreciate the present without knowing the past. � The summary of the history of health education can help us have a better understanding of where is health education today, and where it is heading. � Today!! The health of the people in the U. S. is better than any time in the past and the status of the profession of health promotion is more visible and accepted by others