- Slides: 30
The Crust, Mantle, and Core Lesson 16 How would you compare the crust, mantle, and core, including composition, temperature and thickness?
How many layers are there? Are the layers alike or different?
What are some characteristics of Earth’s crust, mantle and core? • From the lowest to highest temperature, which is the correct order of Earth’s layers? • In general, how does the density of material in Earth’s layers change with depth? • In Earth’s crust, what type of rock is found under the oceans?
Compare and Contrast • Compare- How things are alike. • Contrast- How things are different. • Composition- What something is made of.
The Crust, Mantle, and Core • Earth is divided into four layers: the crust, the mantle, the outer core, and the inner core. • Each layer is made up of different materials. • It takes 6, 380 kilometers to get to the center of the Earth’s inner core. • Each layer has a different thickness.
Thickness of Earth’s Layers Crust: 5 -100 kilometers Mantle: 2900 kilometers Outer Core: 2250 kilometers Inner Core: 1300 kilometers
The Crust • The crust is the thin outer layer of Earth. • Earth’s crust is made of two layers. • The two layers of the crust are the continental crust and the oceanic crust. • The continents are made of both granite and basalt. • The ocean floors are made of basalt.
The Crust • Definition: The thin and solid outermost layer of the Earth. • Temperature: 20⁰C - 870⁰C • Thickness: 5 to 100 km thick • Composition: Iron, Silicon, Magnesium, Oxygen, Sodium, Potassium, Calcium and Aluminum.
Two Types of Crust -1. continental 2. oceanic Oceanic crust is thinner and denser (heavy) than continental crust
The Mantle • The makeup of the mantle’s rocks is similar to that of the crust. • The Moho boundary is located between the crust and the mantle. • Currents of the mantle’s molten rock can move whole continents and ocean floors. • Molten rock from the mantle burst through the crust to create islands and volcanoes. • The top layer of the mantle is liquid rock that we call the asthenosphere.
The Asthenosphere- The soft layer of the mantle on which the tectonic plates move. Composition: iron, magnesium, silicon, oxygen Location: in the upper mantle, below the crust
The Mantle • Definition: The layer of rock between the Earth’s crust and core. • Temperature: 1, 000⁰C - 2200⁰C • Thickness: 2, 900 km • Composition: Iron, oxygen, magnesium, and silicon. The mantle is more dense than the crust • The mantle has two parts • 1. Asthenosphere= located in the upper mantle • 2. Mesosphere = the lower mantle
Mesosphere- The strong, lower part of the mantle between the asthenosphere and the outer core.
The Outer and Inner Cores • Earth’s core is made up of two parts: a shell called the outer core and a sphere called the inner core. • Both cores are made up of the metals iron and nickel. • The outer core is liquid metal; the inner core is solid metal. • Tremendous pressure keeps the inner core a solid.
The Core • Definition: The central part of the Earth below the mantle. • Temperature: 2200⁰C-7000⁰C • Thickness: – Outer Core – 2250 km – Inner Core – 1300 km • Composition: Mostly iron and nickel.
Quick Check The very top layer of Earth, found under soil and water is which of the following: a. upper mantle b. crust c. asthenosphere d. outer core
Quick Check Which of the following causes the difference between the upper mantle and lower mantle? a. heat b. pressure c. erosion d. weathering
Quick Check The pressure on the inner core can be compared to which of the following: a. The same pressure as the pressure around an exploding bomb. b. The same pressure as the pressure of a volcano erupting. c. The same pressure as the pressure of hurricane wind.
Quick Check The inner core is made of a. liquid metal b. liquid rock c. solid metal
Quick Check The reason we have a magnetic field is due to the: a. gravitational pull of the sun. b. gravitational pull of Earth. c. movement of the inner core. d. movement of the outer core.
Quick Check From the lowest to highest temperature, which is the correct order of Earth’s layers? a. b. c. d. inner core, outer core, mantle, crust, outer core, inner core crust, mantle, inner core, outer core
Quick Check In general, how does the density of material in Earth’s layers change with depth? a. density increases with depth b. density decreases with depth c. density does not change with depth d. density increases, then decreases with depth
Quick Check In Earth’s crust, what type of rock is found under the oceans? a. only granite b. only basalt c. granite on top, basalt underneath d. basalt on top, granite underneath
Quick Check The thickest layer of the Earth is the a. crust. b. mantle. c. outer core. d. inner core.
Quick Check The Moho is the boundary between the a. inner and outer core. b. the outer core and the mantle. c. the crust and the mantle. d. the crust and the atmosphere.
Quick Check What is the composition of the core? A: _______________ What is the composition of the asthenosphere and where is it located? A: _________________________________
Quick Check Compare the temperature of Earth’s four (4) layers. Crust _______________ Mantle _______________ Outer Core _____________ Inner Core _____________
Quick Check Inside the Earth, What increases with depth? A: _______________________________