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The CPU: The Real Computer The CPU is also called processor, it performs transformations of input and output. It executes the instructions, performs arithmetic and logical data manipulations, and communicates with the other parts of the computer. motherboard- circuit board that contains a computer’s CPU. A modern computer’s clock speed is measured in gigahertz (GHz), four billion cycles per second. 1 GHz equals one clock cycle per second. PU can’t decipher Intel Pentium instructions and vice versa. Some processors are faster than others. A computer’s overall performance is determined by the speed of its microprocessor internal clock.
From Multicore to Cluster Some of the performance-enhancing techniques we’ve seen aren’t confined to the insides of CPU chips. The divide-and-conquer parallel processing techniques used in multicore PCs are applied on a much larger scale in high-end servers systems. The processing resources of multiple servers can be grouped together in a cluster to improve rendering speeds in lifelike computer graphics.
Computer’s memory The CPU can only handle one instruction and a few pieces at a time. RAM is the most common type of primary storage. The RAM chips contain circuits that store programs instructions and data temporarily. The computer divides each RAM chip into many equal sized memory locations.
impact. A few tips to help minimize your impact are: Green Computing ● Buy green equipment ● Use a laptop because it used less energy than a computer ● Take advantage of energy-saving features ● Turn your computer off when you’re away ● Save energy by turning off your screens ● Turn devices all the way off ● Avoid using things that move because they use more energy. ● Print only one ● Use a green font ● E-cycle your waste products ● Don’t throw away any piece of hardware or software, pass it on
How Computers work: The CPU speed is sometimes measured in MIPs- millions of instructions per second. The typical CPU is divided into several functional units: control, arithmetic logic decode, bus, and prefetch. 1. The actual execution of an instruction is performed by the CPU’s arithmetic logic unit, it includes registers. Usually 32 or 64 bits in size. 2. Programs instructions are stored in primary storage (memory). 3. The prefetch unit instructs the bus unit to read the instruction stored at a particular memory address. 4. The decode unit takes the instruction read by the prefetcher and translates it into a form suitable for the CPU’s internal processing. 5. If an instruction requires that information be sent out from the CPU then the final phase of execution is writeback. 6. The CPU pre reads the next likely data to be used into a cache in memory called a Level 2 cache.
The Clock of the long now 1. do you think the long now clock is a good idea? A= yes, using a binary digital-mechanical system to measure time in a great scale is interesting, and the idea of making a time capsule containing all kinds of information about knowledge and thinking is a good idea. 1. Can you think of other ways to encourage long-term thinking? a time capsule that is opened all year, like a tourist attraction. people in charge can fill the capsule with significant things each 5 years. the capsule can be visited in a city needed of a attraction to increase its economy.