The Context for Solar Resource Development Where are

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The Context for Solar Resource Development: Where are we now? Amy Heinemann August 30,

The Context for Solar Resource Development: Where are we now? Amy Heinemann August 30, 2011 1

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US Total Energy Consumption and Electricity Generation, 2009 US Electric Power Industry Net Generation,

US Total Energy Consumption and Electricity Generation, 2009 US Electric Power Industry Net Generation, 2009 Source: US Energy Information Administration, Electric Power Industry 2009: Year in Review, April 2011 4

State % Electricity Generation by Fuel Source Coal Petroleum Natural Other Gases Nuclear Hydro

State % Electricity Generation by Fuel Source Coal Petroleum Natural Other Gases Nuclear Hydro Other Renewables Other Alabama 38. 8 0. 2 22. 1 0. 1 27. 7 8. 8 2. 1 0. 3 Arkansas 43. 6 0. 2 19. 5 - 26. 4 7. 3 2. 8 - Florida 24. 8 4. 2 54. 3 - 13. 4 0. 1 2 1. 3 Georgia 54 15. 9 - 24. 6 2. 5 2. 2 - Louisiana 25. 4 2 48. 4 1. 3 18. 4 1. 4 2. 6 0. 5 Mississippi 26. 6 - 47. 8 0. 1 22. 6 - 2. 9 - North Carolina 55 0. 3 4. 1 - 34. 5 4. 4 1. 6 0. 2 South Carolina 34. 4 0. 5 9. 8 - 52. 1 2. 3 1. 7 0. 1 Tennessee 52. 2 0. 5 - 33. 8 12. 8 1. 2 - 0. 5 Source: US Energy Information Administration, July 2011 5

Electricity Mix in the Southeast Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Southeast Regional Clean Energy

Electricity Mix in the Southeast Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis, January 2011 6

Electricity Consumption per Customer by Sector, US v. SE Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory,

Electricity Consumption per Customer by Sector, US v. SE Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis, January 2011 7

Average Retail Electricity Rates, 2009 8

Average Retail Electricity Rates, 2009 8

Installed Nameplate Capacity, 2009 Source: US Department of Energy. Renewable Energy Databook. August 2010

Installed Nameplate Capacity, 2009 Source: US Department of Energy. Renewable Energy Databook. August 2010 9

Installed Nameplate Capacity (MW), 2009 Source: US Department of Energy. Renewable Energy Databook. August

Installed Nameplate Capacity (MW), 2009 Source: US Department of Energy. Renewable Energy Databook. August 2010 10

Barriers • • • High upfront cost Low electricity rates Lack of financing options

Barriers • • • High upfront cost Low electricity rates Lack of financing options Permitting and interconnection processes Other policy-related barriers Education and awareness 11

Top Renewable Energy Generators Biomass Source: US Department of Energy. Renewable Energy Databook. August

Top Renewable Energy Generators Biomass Source: US Department of Energy. Renewable Energy Databook. August 2010 12

Top Renewable Energy Generators– Wind Source: US Department of Energy. Renewable Energy Databook. August

Top Renewable Energy Generators– Wind Source: US Department of Energy. Renewable Energy Databook. August 2010 13

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Top Renewable Energy Generators– Solar Source: US Department of Energy. Renewable Energy Databook. August

Top Renewable Energy Generators– Solar Source: US Department of Energy. Renewable Energy Databook. August 2010 15

Solar Installations in 2010 State Top 10 States, Grid-Connected PV in 2010 Top 10

Solar Installations in 2010 State Top 10 States, Grid-Connected PV in 2010 Top 10 States, Grid-Connected PV, Cumulative Capacity Installed in 2010 (MW-DC) Cumulative Installed Capacity (MWDC) Alabama 0. 2 0. 4 Arkansas 0. 6 1. 0 Florida 34. 8 73. 5 Georgia 1. 6 1. 8 Louisiana - 0. 2 Mississippi 0. 1 0. 3 North Carolina 28. 7 40. 0 South Carolina - 0. 2 3. 8 4. 7 Tennessee Source: Interstate Renewable Energy Council & Larry Sherwood, US Solar Market Trends 2010, June 2011 16

Renewable Energy Potential in SE Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Southeast Regional Clean Energy

Renewable Energy Potential in SE Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis, January 2011 17

Policy – A Complicated Web 18

Policy – A Complicated Web 18

To Make Sense of It… 19

To Make Sense of It… 19

DSIRE Solar (dsireusa. org/solar) • Created in 1995 • Funded by U. S. DOE

DSIRE Solar (dsireusa. org/solar) • Created in 1995 • Funded by U. S. DOE / NREL • Managed by N. C. Solar Center (NCSU) • Scope = government & utility incentives & policies that promote RE & EE • ~ 2, 650 total summaries • ~200, 000 users/month • DSIRE Solar Policy Guide for state policymakers • Solar Policy Comparison Tables 20

Renewables Portfolio Standards www. dsireusa. org / June 2011 WA: 15% x 2020* MN:

Renewables Portfolio Standards www. dsireusa. org / June 2011 WA: 15% x 2020* MN: 25% x 2025 MT: 15% x 2015 (Xcel: 30% x 2020) SD: 10% x 2015 WI: Varies by utility; 10% x 2015 statewide NV: 25% x 2025* CO: 30% by 2020 (IOUs) IA: 105 MW 10% by 2020 (co-ops & large munis)* CA: 33% x 2020 UT: 20% by 2025* KS: 20% x 2020 RI: 16% x 2020 NY: 29% x 2015 CT: 23% x 2020 OH: 25% x 2025† IL: 25% x 2025 IN: 15% x 2025† PA: ~18% x 2021† WV: 25% x 2025*† VA: 15% x 2025* NJ: 20. 38% RE x 2021 + 5, 316 GWh solar x 2026 MO: 15% x 2021 AZ: 15% x 2025 OK: 15% x 2015 NM: 20% x 2020 (IOUs) NH: 23. 8% x 2025 New RE: 15% x 2020 (+1% annually thereafter) x 2015* 5% - 10% x 2025 (smaller utilities) ME: 30% x 2000 New RE: 10% x 2017 MA: 22. 1% x 2020 MI: 10% & 1, 100 MW ND: 10% x 2015 OR: 25% x 2025 (large utilities)* VT: (1) RE meets any increase in retail sales x 2012; (2) 20% RE & CHP x 2017 MD: 20% x 2022 DE: 25% x 2026* NC: 12. 5% x 2021 (IOUs) 10% x 2018 (co-ops & munis) 10% x 2020 (co-ops) TX: 5, 880 MW x 2015 DC DC: 20% x 2020 PR: 20% x 2035 HI: 40% x 2030 29 states + Renewable portfolio standard Renewable portfolio goal Solar water heating eligible *† Minimum solar or customer-sited requirement Extra credit for solar or customer-sited renewables Includes non-renewable alternative resources DC and PR have an RPS (8 states have goals) 21

Financing Options • • Loans Retail (3 rd Party) PPAs and Leases On-bill Financing

Financing Options • • Loans Retail (3 rd Party) PPAs and Leases On-bill Financing PACE Financing 22

Net Metering • Billing arrangement between a utility and a customer-generator that allows electricity

Net Metering • Billing arrangement between a utility and a customer-generator that allows electricity to flow both to and from the customer. • Many caveats and fine details can make a net metering policy heavily favor the utility. 23

Interconnection Standards Interconnection refers to the issues that must be settled between the system

Interconnection Standards Interconnection refers to the issues that must be settled between the system owner and the utility and local permitting authorities before the system is connected to the grid. 1. Technical – safety, power quality, system impacts 2. Contractual – legal and procedural issues 3. Rates, fees and metering issues 24

Other Policies • Solar access laws • Solar permitting incentives • Solar ready building

Other Policies • Solar access laws • Solar permitting incentives • Solar ready building guidelines 25

Wrap-Up • SE electricity based on coal, nuclear, and natural gas • Solar resource

Wrap-Up • SE electricity based on coal, nuclear, and natural gas • Solar resource is good in SE and solar installations have been growing • High upfront cost, lack of financing options and regulatory barriers can hinder growth of state solar market • Policy options can be used to overcome barriers 26

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Questions? Amy Heinemann North Carolina Solar Center 919. 515. 5693 amy. heinemann@ncsu. edu 28

Questions? Amy Heinemann North Carolina Solar Center 919. 515. 5693 amy. [email protected] edu 28