- Slides: 38
THE COLD WAR BEGINS
Yalta & Potsdam Conferences -Meetings of the Allied leaders during World War II to decide what to do with Germany - United Nations formed at Yalta meeting - serious differences started between Stalin & Truman at Potsdam
Germany Divided British Soviet French American ● After World War II, Germany was divided into four zones, occupied by French, British, American, and Soviet troops ● Berlin, the capital city, was divided
THE COLD WAR ● The era of confrontation and competition between the U. S. and the Soviet Union when the threat of nuclear war created constant world tension United States Soviet Union vs. Democracy Communism
The Cold War United States Russia • One party – Communist Party • All labor groups run by • Unions openly negotiate with Communist party employers • Industries-farms owned by state/ • Free enterprise system/supply & central planners determine needs/ demand set prices/limited gov’t limited private property involvement • Religion discouraged • Free exercise of religion • Freedom of the press & expression • Secret police arrest opponents • Multi-Party Democracy
Soviet troops move into Germany near the end of World War II ● As World War II ended, the Soviet army occupied the countries of Eastern Europe that Germany had conquered during the war Soviets take over Eastern Europe
The Iron Curtain Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Hungary Bulgaria and East Germany became satellite nations of Soviet Union “An iron curtain has descended across the Continent” – Prime Minister Winston Churchill
Peep under the Iron curtain March 6, 1946 Who is “Joe”? What part of Europe is sealed off? What does the wall symbolize?
Truman Doctrine ● U. S. foreign policy established by President Truman saying the U. S. would protect democracies throughout the world “It must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressures” -- Harry Truman
Truman Doctrine ● It pledged that the United States would fight Communism worldwide American tanks provided by the Truman Doctrine roll through
Aid for Europe ● Secretary of State George Marshall toured Western Europe. ●Marshall feared that poor Europeans would turn to Communism Children in a London suburb, waiting outside the wreckage of what was
Marshall Plan ● U. S. plan for rebuilding Western Europe, and stopping communism after World War II ● Plan pumped billions of dollars into Western Europe for food and supplies George C. Marshall
Marshall Plan aids Western Europe The Marshall Plan proved to be a great success
East and West Germany formed East Berlin West Germany East Germany West Berlin ● In June of 1948, the French, British and American zones were joined into the nation of West Germany after the Soviets refused to end their occupation of Germany.
● In response, the Soviets cut off West Berlin from the rest of the world with a blockade. Eventual site of the Berlin Wall
Berlin Airlift ● President Truman decided to avoid the blockade by flying in food and other supplies to the needy people of West Berlin
Berlin Airlift ● The Berlin Airlift saved the people of West Berlin from falling under Soviet Union control
Birth of NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization ● Formed in 1949 to protect Western Europe from Soviet aggression
Red Scare ● U. S. citizens in late 1940’s through the 1950’s feared Communists wanted to take over the world. This fear was known as the Red Scare.
Red Scare ● People who were accused of being Communists were often “blacklisted” ● If someone was blacklisted, it meant they were denied work or ostracized from society Movie stars Lauren Bacall and Humphrey Bogart lead a protest during height of
Cold War spreads to Asia ● Communists take over in China ● The country of Korea became the next battleground in the Cold War China Korea
The Korean War The Cold War gets HOT ● Following World War II, the Allies divided Korea at the 38 th parallel ● Soviets controlled North Korea; U. S. sets up a democracy in South Korea
The Korean War A “Police Action” (1950 -1953) ●“Domino Theory” If one country falls to communism, others around it will fall as well
The Korean War The Cold War gets HOT ● On June 25, 1950, North Korea invades South Korea ● UN forces under Macarthur come to the aid of South Korea ● Communist forces push UN forces to brink of defeat, but UN forces push back
The Korean War ● North Koreans pushed back to border with China ● Chinese enter war on the side of North Koreans ● Macarthur calls for an invasion of China, wants to use the atomic bomb An artillery officer directs UN troops as they drop white phosphorous on a Communist-held post in February 1951.
The Korean War ● War ends in a stalemate ● Korean War ended July 1953 ● Korea was divided at the 38 th parallel ● U. S. began a major military build-up; began using military force to prevent spread of communism
Mc. Carthyism ● In 1952, U. S. Senator Joe Mc. Carthy began holding Senate hearings ● Mc. Carthy turned the hearings into witch-hunts, destroying people’s reputations
The Warsaw Pact ● The Warsaw Pact was the Soviet Union’s response to the creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Russians launch Sputnik The Russians have beaten America into space—they have the technological edge!
The Space Race Begins ● In 1961, Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin blasted off into space, making the Soviet Union the first nation to launch a human into space ● Kennedy said he wanted U. S. to land a man on the moon by the end of the 1960 s
The Space Race Begins ● on July 20, 1969, when Neil Armstrong became the first human to step foot on the moon “That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind. ” – Neil Armstrong
Castro embraces Communism (1959) Cuban dictator Fidel Castro embraces Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev
Berlin Wall Built ● Soviets wanted to keep Germans from moving out of East Germany into West Berlin
Bay of Pigs Debacle (1961) ● CIA-trained Cuban exiles led an attack at the Bay of Pigs in Cuba in an attempt to overthrow Castro ● Invasion was a disaster and failed;
Cuban Missile Crisis ● U. S. and Russia came extremely close to nuclear when Russians place nuclear missiles in Cuba in November of 1962
Cuban Missile Crisis ● United States places an embargo on incoming shipments to Cuba from the Soviet Union
Cuban Missile Crisis ● Kennedy threatens a U. S. invasion of Cuba unless Soviet missiles are removed President John F. Kennedy thinking in the Oval Office during the Cuban ● The Russians agreed to take their missiles out of Cuba if the U. S. removed theirs from Turkey