- Slides: 97
The Cold War 19451991
Cold War • The Cold War was a time after WW 2 when the USA and the Soviet Union were rivals for world influence. • 2 political ideologies – communism and captialism • Soviet takeover in E Europe (Hungarians revolt in 1956)
YALTA (in the USSR) Date: Feb 1945 Present: Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin
Conferences Yalta (Feb, 1945) Potsdam (July, 1945) • • • When carving up what to do with Germany after the war, the big 3 met (Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin) met first in Teheran (1943) and then by the Black sea in Yalta in the USSR (1945) The allies drew up an overall strategy for the defeat and the occupation of Germany. At the centre of talks was what to do about Berlin. It was decided that the Russians continue their advance and capture Berlin. When the war was over however, all 3 allies would occupy the city of Berlin. (The fact that Berlin was allowed to fall to the Soviets would later haunt the allies). • • Instead of coming up with another horrific treaty of Versailles, the allies decided that they would a more lasting peace document. Atlee, Truman and Stalin met on the outskirts of Berlin in Potsdam to outline the plans for peace. Germany would be divided into four major occupation zones. (USSR, USA, Britain, France). Trials would be set up for Nazi War criminals. USSR could extend into Poland. Berlin would be divided into four zones as well (big 3 and France). Berlin became the focal point of an East-West confrontation.
POTSDAM (Germany) Date: July 1945 Present: Churchill, Truman and Stalin
Iron Curtain – A term used by Winston Churchill to describe the separating of Those communist lands of East Europe from the West.
What was the Cold War? – A battle of words, propaganda and intimidation. – U. S. S. R. and the United States competed for dominance. – Proxy wars erupted: Korean and Vietnam. – Characterized by a nuclear arms race and military alliances.
Three types of war • Hot War: actual warfare • Warm War: talks are going on but military forces have been mobilised • Cold War: neither side fights but tensions are always high
Background Causes – 1917 Bolshevik Revolution. – The US was hostile to Russia for taking her out of WWI. – The totalitarian nature of Stalin’s regime. – Stalin and Roosevelt had opposing aims. – The US refusal to share nuclear secrets with Russia.
Causes of Tension • The United States has free elections, is democratic and Capitalist, “survival of the fittest” and personal freedom. • Soviet Union had no elections or fixed elections, it was Autocratic and Communist, the NKVD (secret police) and few personal freedoms.
Steps Leading to the Cold War – Communist Revolution. – Russian Industrial Revolution created uneasiness in the West. – The Yalta Conference. – Hiroshima and Nagasaki greatly increased mistrust. – Igor Gouzenko defected to Canada.
Effects of these Developments – International relations were dominated by the Cold War. – Capitalist west and the communist east. – Germany would be divided. – The USSR tightened its control over Eastern European states. – The US abandoned its policy of isolationism.
Improve your knowledge Constant • The nuclear bomb gave America a lead Reminders which was expected to last at least 5 years. of the Past: The rapid Russian development of nuclear WWII technology, helped by the work of the “atom spies” was a shock. Significantly, Russia hurriedly declared war against Japan at the beginning of August 1945 and rushed to advance into Asia to stake out a position for the postwar settlement. This helped make both the Korean and Vietnamese conflicts more likely.
The Turning Point- 1946 Speeches • Stalin • Churchill • To voters in Moscow in Feb, 1946 • Stalin predicted that because of “the unevenness of developmnent of the capitalist countries” they would split into “two hostile camps, with war as the inevitable result” • Iron Curtain Speech • Warning the American people of the Soviet threat The sentence “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent of Europe”. These words marked the beginning of the Cold War. http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v= jvax 5 VUvj. WQ
Leaders during the Cold War USA Leaders • • • Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Democratic 1933– 45 Harry S. Truman. Democratic 1945– 53 Dwight David Eisenhower. Republican 1953– 61 John Fitzgerald Kennedy. Democratic 1961– 63 Lyndon Baines Johnson. Democratic 1963– 69 Richard Milhous Nixon Republican 1969 -74 Gerald Rudolph Ford Republician 1974 -77 Jimmy Carter. Democratic 1977– 81 Ronald Wilson Reagan Republician 1981 -89 George Bush 1989 -1993 Canada’s Prime Ministers William Lyon Mackenzie King 1935 -1948 Louis St. Laurent 1978 -57 John Diefenbaker 1957 -63 Lester B. Pearson 1963 -68 Pierre Trudeau 1968 -79 Joe Clark 1979 -80 Pierre Trudeau 1980 -84 Brian Mulroney 1984 -1993 Great Britain Leaders Winston Churchill. Coalition 1940– 45 • Clement Attlee. Labour 1945– 51 S • Sir Winston Churchill. Conservative 1951– 55 • Sir Anthony Eden. Conservative 1955– 57 • Harold Macmillan. Conservative 1957– 63 • Sir Alec Douglas-Home. Conservative 1963– 64 • Harold Wilson. Labour 1964– 70 • Edward Heath. Conservative 1970– 74 • Harold Wilson. Labour 1974– 76 • James Callaghan. Labour 1976– 79 • Margaret Thatcher. Conservative 1979– 90 • John Major 1990 -1997 USSR Leaders Joseph stalin 1922 -1953 • Nikita kruchev 1953 -1964 • Leonid brezhnev 1966 -1982 • Gorbachev 1985 -1991
Soviet Takeover of Eastern Europe – By 1948 Poland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Albania, Czechoslovakia and Eastern Germany were communist. – Buffer states protected the motherland. – These nations followed the Stalin model of economic control.
Truman Doctrine • The Truman Doctrine in March 1947 promised that the USA “would support free peoples who are resisting” communism. • This led to containment – policy of containing communism where it is. • Truman’s image of “apples in a barrel infected by one rotten one” became the justification for the policy of containment, a defining element of the USA’s policy after WWII.
Domino Theory Communism spreads like a disease
Elements of Containment – The Truman Doctrine. – Containment. – The Marshall Plan. Conversion Calculator
Phase 1: Containment 1947 -49 – 1947: Truman Doctrine. Marshall Aid (Marshall Plan) – 1948: Berlin blockade. Allies respond with the Berlin airlift. – 1949: NATO. USSR exploded her first atomic bomb. China became Communist. – Activity: Concept Map of the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan
Soviet Response to Marshall Plan – Bilateral trade agreements with Communist nations. • Comecon (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, Est’d 1949) – The Cominform was established. – The Berlin Blockade.
The Berlin Blockade (1948) – US, Britain and France united their zones of occupation. – Stalin closed all entrances to West Berlin – Lasted 318 days. – 275 000 Allied flights carried in 1 ½ million tones of supplies. – Detailed Background Information
Images of the Berlin Blockade
Berlin Blockade • The United States begins to airlift goods to Berlin. • A very costly commitment • Under the leadership of General Curtis Le. May, ten-ton capacity C-54 s began supplying the city on July 1. "Operation Vittles « and often referred to as "Le. May's feed and coal company , " was bringing in an average of 5, 000 tons of supplies a day by the fall of 1948. • The Blockade ends in 1949 with the Soviets lifting the blockade as they see the US not giving up. • As a result, the Federal Republic of West Germany and the Democratic Republic of East Germany is created.
Berlin blockade led to Berlin Airlift
Escalation of the Berlin Airlift
Berlin Airlift • Blockade of Berlin began on June 24, ’ 48 • From June 1948 to May 1949, U. S. and British planes airlift 1. 5 million tons of supplies to the residents of West Berlin. • After 200, 000 flights, the Soviet Union lifts the blockade.
Operation Vittles • All of the necessities for the city's 2. 5 million residents -- an estimated 4, 500 tons of food, coal and other materials each day -- had to enter the city by air. • On its biggest day, the "Easter parade" of April 16, 1949, the airlift sent 1, 398 flights into Berlin -- one every minute. • Before it was all over, more than 278, 000 flights would carry 2. 3 million tons of relief supplies.
Berlin Airlift • The airlift marked a rise in tensions between the West and the Soviets, but it also helped heal divisions left by World War II. • Almost immediately, The United States, Great Britain, and France shifted from Germany's conquerors to its protectors. • "The airlift was the starting point for Germany's inclusion in the West and for the reconciliation with the Western powers, " Berlin Mayor Eberhard Diepgen says. • Allied cooperation paved way formation of new military alliance, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, NATO • Soviets formed their own alliance called Warsaw Pact in 1955
Significance • First Cold War Conflict • Differing views as to how to deal with Germany • Truman’s popularity was at a low- this would boost it. • Germany is officially divided • NATO created shortly after as fear of communist build-up. • Warsaw Pact • Activity: Berlin Blockade Concept Map • Activity: Berlin Blockade Debate
Consequences of Containment – By 1949, Europe was divided into two rival camps. – Truman ordered the development of a hydrogen bomb. – A peace treaty with Japan was proposed. – The US became the ‘world policeman’. – Mc. Carthyism erupted in 1948.
Two sides of Cold War • NATO (1948) – • Warsaw Pact (1955) North Atlantic – pro Soviet Treaty Organization countries – USSR, and all countries • USA, France, Great controlled by the Britain, West USSR. Germany • COMMUNISM • CAPITALISM
NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization
How Successful Was it? – Capitalist western European states. – Marshall Aid resulted in economic growth for many people in Western Europe. – Territorially, communism made no gains. – Communist parties were doing less well. – Korea was partly a success. – China was the biggest failure.
Mc. Carthyism and the Red Scare • • • “Are you now or have you ever been a member of the Communist Party? ” In the years following the end of World War II, fear of Communism grew. The events of the war contributed to growing tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union. Spy cases made people speculate about the extent of Communist infiltration in the government. Could Communists be planning to destroy our way of life? People were afraid. 1950's the "Red" Scare destroyed thousands of peoples lives that were accused of being Communists. Those accused in both witch hunts were put on trial, and while many were killed in Salem, the Red Scare had blacklisted those persecuted. The leader of this modern day witch-hunt was Senator Joseph R. Mc. Carthy In the midst of this fear came Joseph Mc. Carthy. In 1950, this senator from Wisconsin made a speech in Wheeling, West Virginia, where he claimed to have a list of 205 people in the state department who were members of the Communist party. Aided by the FBI, Mc. Carthy began his search for Communists. People were called before Congress to testify about their loyalty to the US government. They were asked to names and report their friends, neighbors and family. With increasing conviction in his anti-Communist crusade, Mc. Carthy recklessly attacked some of the country's leading public officials.
Films on the Red Scare • Guilty by Suspicion is a 1991 film about the Hollywood blacklist and associated activities steeming from Mc. Carthyism. • • Good Luck and Good Night Trailer The movie takes place during the early days of broadcast journalism in the 1950 s. Edward Morrow in the CBS newsroom —defy corporate and sponsorship pressures, and discredit the tactics used by Joseph Mc. Carthy during his crusade to root out communist elements within the government.
China becomes a Communist Nation, 1949 • Mao Zedong brands his own form of Marxism on an agricultural society • Six principles of the army – reasonable and respectful • Guerrilla warfare – perhaps the first? • Major social reforms in China – agrarian reform law, marriage reform law, thought reform and education reform • Cultural revolution
China Mao: “The enemy advances, we retreat. The enemy camps, we harass. The enemy tires, we attack. The enemy retreats, we pursue. ”
Background to Korea • 1910 -1945 – Korea was a Japanese colony • Soviets (against Japan) invade Korea from the North • The USA goes to South Korea to help fight the Soviets • As a result of the conferences (Yalta, Potsdam) Korea was divided into 2 zones of occupation after the Japanese surrender.
Korean War, 1950 -1953 • • • On June 25, North Korean communist forces cross the 38 th parallel and invade South Korea. On June 27, Truman orders U. S. forces to assist the South Koreans Communists invaded from the north. China sent a million troops to help reds. The U. N. Security Council condemns the invasion and est’d a 15 -nation fighting force. Finally a truce was signed on July 27, 1953. After a loss of 34 000 US soldiers, over 800 000 S. Koreans, 500 000 N. Koreans and nearly two million Chinese. The negotiators decided to return to the status quo, to uphold the division b/w N. and S. Korea along the 38 th parallel. Video Clip on the Korean War (No talking, maps and text) Korean War Video Clip 2 (Better talking) Korean War Video Clip 3 (Interviews, song with images)
The Korean War 1950 -53 – China remained commercially isolated from the West and out of the United Nations for 22 years. – China gained prestige. – South Korea remained noncommunist. – Money needed for reconstruction had been diverted to war. – US and Europe rearmed.
M*A*S*H (Mobile Army Surgical Headquarters) • MASH was an American TV show that was a medical drama following a team of doctors and support staff stationed in Korea during the Korean War. • The show was very popular and the finale in 1983 became the most watched TV episode in US TV history. • Many of the shows are based on the real life tales told by real MASH surgeons who were interviewed by the production team.
Phase 2: Coexistence 1950 -68 – 1950: Korean War began. – 1952: U. S. exploded her first hydrogen bomb. – 1953: Korean War ended. USSR exploded her first hydrogen bomb. Stalin dies. Khrushchev becomes first secretary. – 1955: Warsaw Pact is established. – 1955: Massive Retalation
Massive Retaliation • On January 12, 1955 U. S. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles first announces the doctrine of Massive Retaliation. • It threatens full-scale nuclear attack on the Soviet Union in response to communist aggression anywhere in the world. • Prevent the spread of Soviet influence, balance the budget. • Shifted to US nuclear arsenal and covert intelligence. John Foster Dulles and Mac. Arthur in Korea, 1950
Phase 2: Coexistence – 1956: Khrushchev calls for “peaceful coexistence. ” – 1957: Sputnik. USSR successfully tests an ICBM. – 1959: Cuba becomes Communist. – 1960: US embargo on exports to Cuba. John F. Kennedy becomes U. S. President.
Peaceful Coexistence – Khrushchev announced “peaceful coexistence. ” – Warsaw Pact was created. – US-USSR relations improved. – Mao opposed ‘peaceful co-existence. ’ – Soviet Communist party was weakened.
Sputnik (1957) • • – Soviets jumped into the lead of the space race. – Soviet missiles could now hit anywhere on the planet. – Kennedy promised that Americans would land on the moon. – The first satelite On October 4, the Soviet Union launches Sputnik, the first man-made satellite to orbit the Earth. In 1958, the U. S. creates the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the space race is in full gear.
Space Race The USA and the Soviet Union raced as the world watched to be the first to conquer space. • Score: USA – 0 • Soviets - 2 • Apollo Program • USA spent the 60 s trying to catch up to the Soviets.
Armstrong lands on moon! • What is the purpose of a space program? • July 16 -24 1969. • The mission of Apollo 11 was from those dates, and the actual moon landing and first step onto the moon took place on July 20 1969.
1959 - Castro takes power • January 1, 1959 leftist forces under Fidel Castro overthrow Fulgencio Batista • Castro nationalizes the sugar industry and signs trade agreements with the Soviet Union. • The next year, Castro seizes U. S. assets on the island.
Embargoes • Refusing to trade or aid countries in order to punish them
Cuba embargo • Still today, the USA has an economic embargo on communist Cuba. • Their only cars are from before the embargo! • Should the Americans end their embargo?
1960 - The U-2 Affair • On May 1, an American high-altitude U -2 spy plane is shot down on a mission over the Soviet Union. • After the Soviets announce the capture of pilot Francis Gary Powers, the United States recants earlier assertions that the plane was on a weather research mission.
The U-2 Affair • Suffering major embarrassment, Eisenhower was forced to admit the truth behind the mission and the U-2 program, although he refused to publicly apologize to Khrushchev. • This refusal caused the Paris Summit to collapse when Khrushchev stormed out of negotiations. • Powers was sentenced to ten years in prison, including seven years of hard labor, following an infamous show-trial. • He served less than two years, however, and was released in 1962 in exchange for Soviet spy Rudolf Abel.
Phase 2: Coexistence • 1961: “Bay of Pigs”. The Berlin Wall is built. • 1963: Huge increase of American aid to Vietnam. Nuclear Test Ban Treaty is signed. • 1964: Brezhnev. China explodes its first atomic bomb. • 1965: US marines are sent to South Vietnam for combat.
1961 - Berlin Wall • On August 15, communist authorities begin construction on the Berlin Wall to prevent East Germans from fleeing to West Berlin. • Berlin Wall Questions
The Berlin Wall – The Russians claimed Americans used West Berlin for spying. – Comparisons of East and West would cease. – Stop the flow of East German citizens. – Berlin was split in two. – Tension grew as both sides started nuclear testing. – The West became more anti-communist.
Berlin Wall Note the Barbed Wire
1961 - Bay of Pigs • U. S. -organized invasion force of 1, 400 Cuban exiles is defeated by Castro's government forces on Cuba's south coast at the Bay of Pigs. • Launched from Guatemala in ships and planes provided by the United States, the invaders surrender on April 20 after three days of fighting. • Kennedy takes full responsibility for the disaster. Captured Cubans
Bay of Pigs • The CIA trained and funded an invasion of communist Cuba. The invasion failed, and Castro had some powerful friends!
Soviet response. • Don’t worry comrade Castro. We got your back!
The Cuban Missile Crisis 1961 -62 – The Bay of Pigs. – Hot-line was established. – The first test ban treaty was signed. – The USSR began a huge military buildup.
Cuban Missile Crisis – The US cut off all diplomatic and trade relations with Cuba. – Khrushchev’s loss of prestige contributed to his fall. – Both sides were more careful in the future. – Cuba remained a Communist dictatorship.
1962 - Cuban Missile Crisis • After Bay of Pigs invasion, the Soviet Union installed nuclear missiles in Cuba. • After U-2 flights Kennedy ordered a naval blockade of Cuba on October 22 until the Soviet Union removed its missiles. • On October 28, the Soviets agreed to remove the missiles, defusing one of the most dangerous confrontations of the Cold War.
The End of the Cuban Missile Crisis: http: //library. thinkq uest. org/11046/day s/conclusion. html Copyright 2007 unimaps. com, used with permission
A U 2 spy plane found these missile silos in Cuba, 1962.
End to a crisis! • The Soviets removed the missiles in Cuba. • In exchange, USA pledged to not invade Cuba again. And to remove missiles in Turkey (right).
John F. Kennedy (JFK) U. S. President – 1961 -1963 • JFK • Famous Speeches • Ask not what your country can do for you • Man on the Moon • JFK was shot in Dallas • Video of Shooting
The Vietnam War 1964 -75 – The US had lost its first war in History. – America’s military could not stop the spread of Communism. – The US tried to improve their relations with China. – Leaders determined there would be “no more Vietnams. ”
1973 - Vietnam War agreement (Paris Accords) • January 27, 1973, the United States, South Vietnam, North Vietnam and the Viet Cong sign the Paris Peace Treaty, establishing a cease-fire. • The United States is allowed to continue providing aid to South Vietnam. • Saigon falls in April 1975.
Vietnam War 1960 s-1973 • Through the Kennedy years, US troops trained S. Vietnamese troops to fight the Reds. • After the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, under LBJ, US troops started to fight more. • From Wikipedia • Illustrated History Online
Napalm! • Napalm • Case Study of My Lai • What we did at My Lai (Video Clip) • Movies relating to the Vietnam War: Platoon, Hamburger Hill, We were soldiers, Casualties of War, Full Metal Jacket, The Walking Dead, A Bright Shining Lie, Missing in Action
Seeing this on TV led to a loss of support at home
Phase 2: Coexistence – 1966: US troops in Vietnam rises to 389 000. – 1967: International treaty banning nuclear weapons from outer space. China tests a hydrogen bomb. – 1968: USSR invades Czechoslovakia. Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty is signed.
Mutually Assured Destruction – Depended on the maintenance of a sizable nuclear arsenal. – Fear of a counter-strike would prevent either side from using their weapons.
1975 - Cambodia “The Killing Fields” • Communist Khmer Rouge take power in Cambodia, April 16 1975. • Cambodia's educated and urban population forced into the countryside as part of a state experiment in agrarian communism. • Under the regime of Pol Pot, as many as 3 million Cambodians died from 1975 to 1979.
1979 - Afghanistan • December 25, 100, 000 Soviet troops invaded Afghanistan as communist Babrak Karmal seized control of the government. • U. S. -backed Muslim guerrilla fighters waged a costly war against the Soviets for nearly a decade before Soviet troops withdraw in 1988. • Afghanistan—the Soviet “Vietnam” • Charlie Wilson’s War
1983 - Star Wars • March 23, Reagan outlined his Strategic Defense Initiative, or "Star Wars, " a space-based defensive shield that would use lasers and other advanced technology to destroy attacking missiles far above the Earth's surface. • Soviets accuse the U. S of violating the 1972 Antiballistic Missile Treaty. • Soviets forced to spend heavily to match the program causing near economic collapse.
Hippies/Anti-war • American Dissent • Hippie • Throughout the 60 s and 70 s! • Forrest Gump (Trailer)
1985 - Gorbachev comes to power • On March 11, Mikhail Gorbachev came to power in the Soviet Union. • Gorbachev ushered in an era of reform. – perestroika • Economic reform- restructuring – glasnost – means openness, allowed greater free expression and criticism of Soviet policies
How did the Cold War End? • • • During the 1970's and early 1980's, the Soviet economy was deteriorating under the cumulative effects of a centralized bureaucratic system, the burdens of an increasingly costly arms race, and a failed war in Afghanistan. A new generation of leadership came to power in 1985 in the person of Gorbachev. He was determined to end the Cold War and to bring economic and political reform to the Soviet Union. He initiated dramatic new agreements with the United States, involving unilateral concessions in the armaments race. He also brought an end to Soviet support of client governments in Eastern Europe and in Cuba. He relaxed the police state repression in the Soviet empire and took steps to introduce a democratic political process. These initiatives rapidly improved relations with the United States and brought an end to the Cold War. What Gorbachev had not anticipated, however, was that, without the domination of the police and a monopoly of power in the hands of the Communist Party, the Soviet empire would collapse into 16 different national parts. Nationalism, always a potent force in the modern world, brought about the collapse of the Soviet Union by 1991.
1989 - Berlin Wall falls • Gorbachev renounced the Brezhnev Doctrine, which pledged to use Soviet force to protect its interests in Eastern Europe. • On September 10, Hungary opened its border with Austria, allowing East Germans to flee to the West. • After massive public demonstrations in East Germany and Eastern Europe, the Berlin Wall fell on November 9.
Fall of Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall is torn down in 1989.
1990 – German unification • At a September 12 meeting in Moscow, the United States, Soviet Union, Great Britain, France and the two Germanys agreed to end Allied occupation rights in Germany. • On October 3, East and West Germany united as the Federal Republic of Germany.
Songs Relating to the World War • Billy Joel “We didn’t start the fire” (You tube video) Lyrics • Songs relating to the Cold War (online list)