- Slides: 32
The Cold War 19451991
Cold War • The Cold War was a time after WWII when the USA and the Soviet Union were rivals for world influence.
Cold War Rivalry 1 Economic system rivalries • USA, France, Great • USSR, and all Britain, West countries controlled Germany by the USSR. • CAPITALISM • COMMUNISM
Truman Doctrine The Truman Doctrine in March 1947 promised that the USA “would support free peoples who are resisting” communism. This led to containment – policy of containing communism where it is.
Domino Theory Communism spreads like a disease
Marshall Plan USA’s plan to send food, blankets, fuel to Europe to help them. AND to keep them from turning communist.
YALTA (in the USSR) Date: Feb 1945 Present: Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin
POTSDAM (Germany) Date: July 1945 Present: Churchill, Truman and Stalin
Iron Curtain – A term used by Winston Churchill to describe the separating of Those communist lands of East Europe from the West.
Improve your knowledge • The Russians took very high casualties to capture Berlin in May 1945. They spent the early occupation trying to take over all zones of the city but were stopped by German democrats such as Willy Brandt and Konrad Adenauer. Reluctantly the Russians had to admit the Americans, French and British to their respective zones.
We want Germany to recover from war as it is so important for trade in Europe. Without a strong Germany, the rest of the countries in Europe will suffer. Truman Attlee West I want a weak Germany because I see them as a threat to myself and my country. They cause nothing but problems and a strong Germany will not be tolerated! (maniacal laughter) East Stalin
I’m going to take what I can from East Germany’s Industry because I want massive compensation for the 20 million Russians that died. Germany must remain weak. (maniacal laughter) We (along with France) are going to join our zones together and create a new and stronger currency to help Germany recover. We need a stronger Germany. Truman Attlee Stalin
The crisis begins. . Stalin planned to force the Western Allies (USA, Britain, & France) out of West Berlin. In June 1948, Stalin blocked all routes in and out of Berlin. Road, rail and canal routes were all cut – all surface transport.
Berlin blockade led to Berlin Airlift
The Berlin Airlift The choice to fly supplies in was taken. This meant the Western Allies wouldn’t give in to Stalin, but also wouldn’t provoke war. It placed pressure on Stalin – he couldn’t just shoot planes down because he would be the aggressor! Poland Czechoslovakia
Stalin lifted the blockade in May 1949.
Berlin Wall-1961 • Berlin is Germany’s capital city. • The Soviets built the wall to keep communists from escaping to the American sector.
Rivalry 2 The Arms Race • By 1949 Soviets had atom bomb • By 1953 both countries had H-bombs • 1953 Stalin dies and there is hope for peace • Nikita Khrushchev was the new leader of Russia
Improve your knowledge • The nuclear bomb gave America a lead which was expected to last at least 5 years. The rapid Russian development of nuclear technology, helped by the work of the “atom spies” was a shock. Significantly, Russia hurriedly declared war against Japan at the beginning of August 1945 and rushed to advance into Asia to stake out a position for the postwar settlement. This helped make both the Korean and Vietnamese conflicts more likely.
NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization
The Formation of NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization • 10 Western European nations joined with the US and Canada on April 4, 1949 to form a defensive military alliance – members agreed to defend each other if any was attacked – Belgium, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Great Britain, (Greece & Turkey were admitted in 1952, West Germany in 1955, and Spain in 1982. In 1990 the newly unified Germany replaced West Germany as a NATO member. – First time US entered military alliance during peacetime U. S. President Harry S. Truman signing the NATO alliance pact before members of Congress, 1949.
Warsaw Pact (1955) • Communist Military Alliance created in response to NATO • Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the USSR. • 1991 – Alliance dissolved
Rivalry 3 • Space Race
Space Race • The USA and the Soviet Union raced as the world watched to be the first to conquer space.
1957 Sputnik – first satellite Score 1 for Soviets!
First man in space • Score: USA – 0 • Soviets - 2
Apollo program • USA spent the 60 s trying to catch up to the Soviets.
Armstrong lands on moon! • July 20, 1969