The cognitive basis of language Metaphoricity metonymy Symbolicity

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The cognitive basis of language Metaphoricity, metonymy Symbolicity (relation of convention) Indexicality (relation of

The cognitive basis of language Metaphoricity, metonymy Symbolicity (relation of convention) Indexicality (relation of association) Iconicity (relation of resemblance) English 306 A; Harris

Elements + combinatorics At every level • Sounds combine into syllables and morphemes •

Elements + combinatorics At every level • Sounds combine into syllables and morphemes • Morphemes combine into words • Words combine into phrases and sentences • Sentences combine into turns or paragraphs • Turns combine into conversations • Paragraphs combine into texts English 306 A; Harris

Meaning Signs Signifier/signified pairs Index signified association Icon resemblance “cow” signifier Symbol association-by-convention English

Meaning Signs Signifier/signified pairs Index signified association Icon resemblance “cow” signifier Symbol association-by-convention English 306 A; Harris

Types of signs Index A sign defined by relationship of association (especially cause and

Types of signs Index A sign defined by relationship of association (especially cause and effect). Prototypically, think fever. Iconic A sign defined by relationship of resemblance. Prototypically, think picture. Symbolic A sign defined by relationship of arbitrariness, convention, and learning. Prototypically, think word. English 306 A; Harris

Dimensions of signs Indexicality A semiotic tendency defined by relationship of association (esp. cause

Dimensions of signs Indexicality A semiotic tendency defined by relationship of association (esp. cause and effect). Iconicity A semiotic tendency defined by relationship of resemblance. Symbolicity A semiotic tendency defined by relationship of arbitrariness, convention, and learning. English 306 A; Harris

Metaphor and metonymy Indirect representation Something (called the source) carries the primary signification for

Metaphor and metonymy Indirect representation Something (called the source) carries the primary signification for something else (target) that ordinarily holds that signification. Metaphor is iconic The source/target relationship is an asserted resemblance: the target is said to be like the source in some way. Metonymy is indexical The source/target relationship is (not exactly necessary but) drawn from the same habitat: the target is related to the source in some way. English 306 A; Harris

Metonymy— The principle of set membership One element of a set or a relationship

Metonymy— The principle of set membership One element of a set or a relationship (the source) singled out to represent other element(s) (the target) • • • Hollywood loves westerns. Toronto collapses! Calgary wins in OT! All hands on deck. Thirty head of cattle. English 306 A; Harris

Metaphor— The principle of analogy One element (the source) represents another element (the target),

Metaphor— The principle of analogy One element (the source) represents another element (the target), to which it is unrelated. • • • My love is red, red rose. Homer is a pig. Toronto is toast. The table leg is broken. The orthopedic wing is closed. Fire kills thousands every year. (Personification) English 306 A; Harris

English 306 A; Harris

English 306 A; Harris

“Pussy” English 306 A; Harris

“Pussy” English 306 A; Harris

“Pussy” English 306 A; Harris

“Pussy” English 306 A; Harris

“Pussy” English 306 A; Harris

“Pussy” English 306 A; Harris

“Pussy” English 306 A; Harris

“Pussy” English 306 A; Harris

“Pussy” Metaphor • Target = vagina • Source = cat • Attributes • Warm

“Pussy” Metaphor • Target = vagina • Source = cat • Attributes • Warm • Furry • English 306 A; Harris

! “Pussy!” Stage 1 Metonymy (synecdoche) • Target = woman • Source = pussy-as-vagina

! “Pussy!” Stage 1 Metonymy (synecdoche) • Target = woman • Source = pussy-as-vagina The ultimate devaluing of a (category of a) person: to a small anatomical component. English 306 A; Harris

“Pussy!” Stage 2 Metaphor = • Target = the insult victim • Source =

“Pussy!” Stage 2 Metaphor = • Target = the insult victim • Source = woman (not vagina) • Attributes • Weak • Soft • Quitter • Means ‘Opposite of a man’, but in a wholly evaluative way. English 306 A; Harris

“Pussy” Metaphor Metonymy Metaphor Indexicality, Iconicity • a relatively mundane example of ordinary language

“Pussy” Metaphor Metonymy Metaphor Indexicality, Iconicity • a relatively mundane example of ordinary language • not a fancy literary or rhetorical device • these processes, and figuration generally, are pervasive English 306 A; Harris

We now return you to regular programming F English 306 A; Harris

We now return you to regular programming F English 306 A; Harris

Metonymy, metaphor to go tyson to go ballistic Representation analogy The picture is metaphoric;

Metonymy, metaphor to go tyson to go ballistic Representation analogy The picture is metaphoric; the expression isn’t n o i at s s A i c o l i m y t i ar Si English 306 A; Harris

Conceptual metaphors TIMEIS ISMONEY spend day, invest three months, spend aaday, invest three months,

Conceptual metaphors TIMEIS ISMONEY spend day, invest three months, spend aaday, invest three months, bank your overtime, costme me a weekend, overtime, cost a weekend, … … ARGUMENT IS WAR ARGUMENT IS he I defended it well, she shot he attackedmy mypoint, I defended it well, me I blew Iher outher of the shotdown, me down, blew outwater, of the…water, … ANGER IS IS HEAT you I was steamed, he has you makemy mybloodboil, I was steamed, he a fiery she's a hothead, has atemper, fiery temper, she's a … hothead, … English 306 A; Harris

Conceptual metaphors TIME IS MONEY spend a day, invest three months, bank your overtime,

Conceptual metaphors TIME IS MONEY spend a day, invest three months, bank your overtime, cost me a weekend, … ARGUMENT IS WAR he attacked my point, I defended it well, she shot me down, I blew her out of the water, … ANGER IS HEAT you make my blood boil, I was steamed, he has a fiery temper, she's a hothead, … English 306 A; Harris

Conceptual metaphors TIME IS MONEY spend a day, invest three months, bank your overtime,

Conceptual metaphors TIME IS MONEY spend a day, invest three months, bank your overtime, cost me a weekend, … ARGUMENT IS WAR he attacked my point, I defended it well, she shot me down, I blew her out of the water, … ANGER IS HEAT you make my blood boil, I was steamed, he has a fiery temper, she's a hothead, … English 306 A; Harris

Conceptual metaphors TIME IS MONEY spend a day, invest three months, bank your overtime,

Conceptual metaphors TIME IS MONEY spend a day, invest three months, bank your overtime, cost me a weekend, … ARGUMENT IS WAR he attacked my point, I defended it well, she shot me down, I blew her out of the water, … ANGER IS HEAT you make my blood boil, I was steamed, he has a fiery temper, she's a hothead, … English 306 A; Harris

Conceptual Metonymy PRODUCER FOR PRODUCT I only read Dr. Seuss, she wore Calvin Klein

Conceptual Metonymy PRODUCER FOR PRODUCT I only read Dr. Seuss, she wore Calvin Klein last night, the Wolf Blass has too much tannin, … CONTAINER FOR CONTAINED that’s a tasty dish, the needle was the death of her, he drank the whole bottle, … PERSON FOR INSTRUMENT I’m parked out back, she’s the lead guitar, he’s the drill press, … PLACE FOR PEOPLE BC voted conservative, Alberta likes cowboy movies, Thunder Bay is surprisingly liberal, … PLACE FOR INSTITUTION Ottawa raised our taxes again, Queen’s Park changed the speed limits, … English 306 A; Harris

Indexicality is metonymic Defined by association There must be a certain physical, temporal, or

Indexicality is metonymic Defined by association There must be a certain physical, temporal, or conceptual relation between referential objects for the words/expressions to function English 306 A; Harris

Indexicality Egocentricity Speaker-oriented • Deixis (pointing words) Anthropocentrism Human-oriented • Inherent orientation (human-body orientation

Indexicality Egocentricity Speaker-oriented • Deixis (pointing words) Anthropocentrism Human-oriented • Inherent orientation (human-body orientation projected to objects) English 306 A; Harris

Indexicality Deictics Gk. deiktos ≈ “to show” • Pointing words Langauge which works by

Indexicality Deictics Gk. deiktos ≈ “to show” • Pointing words Langauge which works by ‘gesturing outward’ from speaker (the ego), to other objects English 306 A; Harris

Indexical orientation — Deictic centre Lexical egocentricity Pronouns • EGO = 1 st person

Indexical orientation — Deictic centre Lexical egocentricity Pronouns • EGO = 1 st person (I, me, …) • EGO+others = 1 st person plural (we, us, …) • Hearer-of-EGO = 2 nd person (you, your, …) • Hearer-of-EGO+others = 2 nd person plural (you, your, …) • Not-EGO-and-not-hearer-of-EGO = 3 rd person (he, she, it, …) • Not-EGO-and-not-hearer-of. EGO+others = 3 rd person plural (they, them, …) English 306 A; Harris

Indexical orientation — Deictic centre Lexical egocentricity Proximals • Speaking location • Where-EGO-is: here,

Indexical orientation — Deictic centre Lexical egocentricity Proximals • Speaking location • Where-EGO-is: here, near, … • Where-EGO-is-not: there, far, … • Speaking time • When-EGO-is: now, today, … • When-EGO-is-not: then, tomorrow, … • Relative location to speaker • Close-to-EGO: this, these, … • Not-close-to-EGO: that, those, . . English 306 A; Harris

Indexicality? Anthropocentricity Gk. anthropos ≈ “man” (hu)man-centred Inherent orientation: human orientation projected onto artefacts

Indexicality? Anthropocentricity Gk. anthropos ≈ “man” (hu)man-centred Inherent orientation: human orientation projected onto artefacts and entities) • front, back • left, right • before, behind English 306 A; Harris

Deictic (egocentric) vs. Inherent (anthropocentric) Orientation e c o g e ic r t

Deictic (egocentric) vs. Inherent (anthropocentric) Orientation e c o g e ic r t n - o p o r h t an tric n ce English 306 A; Harris

Indexicality? Anthropocentricity Gk. anthropos ≈ “man” (hu)man-centred Inherent orientation: human orientation projected onto artefacts

Indexicality? Anthropocentricity Gk. anthropos ≈ “man” (hu)man-centred Inherent orientation: human orientation projected onto artefacts and entities) • front, back • left, right • before, behind English 306 A; Harris

Indexicality? Anthropocentricity Gk. anthropos ≈ “man” (hu)man-centred Inherent orientation: human orientation projected onto artefacts

Indexicality? Anthropocentricity Gk. anthropos ≈ “man” (hu)man-centred Inherent orientation: human orientation projected onto artefacts and entities) • front, back • left, right • before, behind = personification = metaphorical English 306 A; Harris

Iconicity is metaphoric Defined by similarity (rather than association) Sequential order “Don’t drink and

Iconicity is metaphoric Defined by similarity (rather than association) Sequential order “Don’t drink and drive” Distance Immediacy of action Quantity Reduplication English 306 A; Harris

Iconicity is metaphoric Defined by similarity (rather than association) Sequential order “Don’t drink and

Iconicity is metaphoric Defined by similarity (rather than association) Sequential order “Don’t drink and drive” Distance Immediacy of action Quantity Reduplication English 306 A; Harris

Iconicity Principle of sequential order Unless marked, the order of words mirrors the order

Iconicity Principle of sequential order Unless marked, the order of words mirrors the order of events. • He kicked sand in my face and I got mad. • I got mad and he kicked sand in my face. English 306 A; Harris

Iconicity Principle of distance Linguistic distance (proximity) tends to mirror conceptual distance. • She

Iconicity Principle of distance Linguistic distance (proximity) tends to mirror conceptual distance. • She squeezed me. • She gave me a squeeze. • She gave a squeeze to me. English 306 A; Harris

Iconicity Principle of quantity Length of utterance correlates with (speaker’s perception of) quantity of

Iconicity Principle of quantity Length of utterance correlates with (speaker’s perception of) quantity of concept. • Dinosaurs lived a l o o o n g time ago. • Dinosaurs lived a long, … time ago. • Lawyerese. • Political speeches. English 306 A; Harris

Iconicity — Principle of quantity Reduplication Japanese hito 'person' hitobito ’group of people' kami

Iconicity — Principle of quantity Reduplication Japanese hito 'person' hitobito ’group of people' kami 'god' kamigami ’group of gods' Mandarin xiao 'small' xiao 'very small' gaoxing 'happy' gaogaoxing 'very happy' English 306 A; Harris

Iconicity — Principle of quantity Reduplication /ora¯/ = man / ora¯/ = all sorts

Iconicity — Principle of quantity Reduplication /ora¯/ = man / ora¯/ = all sorts of men /anak/ = child /anak/ = all sorts of children /ma¯a/ = mango / ma¯a / = all sorts of mangoes English 306 A; Harris

Iconicity — Principle of quantity Reduplication Download the= all. SIL / ora¯/ sorts of

Iconicity — Principle of quantity Reduplication Download the= all. SIL / ora¯/ sorts of men to =see /anak/ = child. IPA fonts /anak/ all sorts of children these /ma¯a/ = mango / ma¯a / = all sorts of mangoes transcriptions in PPS files /ora¯/ = man English 306 A; Harris

Any questions? Metaphoricity, metonymy Symbolicity (arbitrariness, convention, learning) Indexicality (relation of association) • Egocentricity

Any questions? Metaphoricity, metonymy Symbolicity (arbitrariness, convention, learning) Indexicality (relation of association) • Egocentricity (deixis) • Anthropocentricity (inherent orientation) Iconicity (relation of resemblance) • Sequential order • Distance • Quantity English 306 A; Harris