The Civil Rights Movement Origins of the Movement

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The Civil Rights Movement

The Civil Rights Movement

Origins of the Movement Jackie Robinson integrated major league baseball in 1947 Rosa Parks

Origins of the Movement Jackie Robinson integrated major league baseball in 1947 Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on a bus in Montgomery, Alabama to a white passenger and was arrested in 1955 NAACP helped to organize a boycott of the Montgomery bus system African Americans wanted to fight back against “de facto segregation” or segregation by custom and tradition

Court Challenges Begin Since 1909, NAACP supported court cases intended to overturn segregation Norris

Court Challenges Begin Since 1909, NAACP supported court cases intended to overturn segregation Norris v. Alabama (1935) ruled that Alabama’s exclusion of African Americans from juries violated their right to equal protection under the law Morgan v. Virginia (1946) ruled that segregation on interstate buses was unconstitutional Sweatt v. Painter (1950) ruled that state law schools had to admit qualified African American applicants, even if parallel black law schools existed

Push for Desegregation 1942 James Farmer and George Houser founded the Congress of Racial

Push for Desegregation 1942 James Farmer and George Houser founded the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) in Chicago Began to use sit-ins to protest segregation 1943 CORE attempted to desegregate restaurants – If blacks were denied service, they would sit down and refuse to leave

Brown v. the Board of Education 1954 Linda Brown, a young black girl, was

Brown v. the Board of Education 1954 Linda Brown, a young black girl, was denied admission to her neighborhood school and was forced to attend an all-black school across town Brown v. the Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954) segregation in public schools was unconstitutional and violated the equal protection clause of the 14 th Amendment Chief Justice Warren – “In the field of public education, the doctrine of separate but equal has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal”

Southern Resistance Senator Harry F. Byrd called on southerners to adopt “massive resistance” against

Southern Resistance Senator Harry F. Byrd called on southerners to adopt “massive resistance” against the ruling of Brown v. the Board Some southern states begin to instate new requirements besides race to attend certain schools 1956 a group of 101 Congress members signed the Southern Manifesto, which denounced the Supreme Court’s ruling

Montgomery Bus Boycott Montgomery Improvement Association was formed to run the boycott and negotiate

Montgomery Bus Boycott Montgomery Improvement Association was formed to run the boycott and negotiate with city leaders Martin Luther King Jr. was chosen as the leader December 5, 1955 King encouraged people to continue their protests in a peaceful manner at a meeting at a Baptist church Boycott was continued for over a year before the Supreme Court declared the Alabama segregation law to be unconstitutional

Eisenhower Responds Ordered navy shipyards and veterans’ hospitals to desegregate However, Eisenhower did not

Eisenhower Responds Ordered navy shipyards and veterans’ hospitals to desegregate However, Eisenhower did not believe that desegregation should occur through protests or court rulings He refused to publically endorse Brown v. the Board of Education, but he did uphold the decision when necessary

Crisis in Little Rock September, 1957 school board in Little Rock, Arkansas won a

Crisis in Little Rock September, 1957 school board in Little Rock, Arkansas won a court order requiring that nine African American students be admitted to Central High School Governor of Arkansas, Orval Faubus, ordered the Arkansas National Guard to prevent the students from attending the school The district court ordered the National Guard away from the school, but Faubus simply left the school to the mob Eisenhower ordered in federal troops to Little Rock to protect the students and make sure the desegregation occurred

Sit-In Movement February 1, 1960 Four young black men – Joseph Mc. Neil, Ezell

Sit-In Movement February 1, 1960 Four young black men – Joseph Mc. Neil, Ezell Blair Jr. , David Richmond, and Franklin Mc. Cain – entered Woolworth’s Department store and sat down at a whites-only lunch counter When they were refused service, they remained seated until closing and claimed they would do so every day until they were served Movement grew to over 300 students By 1961, sit-ins were held in over 100 cities

Sit-In Movement NAACP and Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) were nervous that the students

Sit-In Movement NAACP and Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) were nervous that the students would eventually become violent if provoked – they were proved wrong Students created their own organization – Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)

Freedom Riders 1961 CORE leader James Farmer asked teams of African Americans and white

Freedom Riders 1961 CORE leader James Farmer asked teams of African Americans and white volunteers to travel in the South to draw attention to its refusal to integrate bus terminals – “Freedom Riders” May 1961 first Freedom Riders boarded southern bound buses – Attacked by white mobs when they arrived

Kennedy and Civil Rights John F. Kennedy promised to support the Civil Rights movement

Kennedy and Civil Rights John F. Kennedy promised to support the Civil Rights movement during his presidential campaign Created the Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity (CEEO) – Worked to stop federal bureaucracy from discriminating against African Americans Kennedy allowed the Justice Department, headed by Robert Kennedy to support civil rights Kennedy made a deal with Mississippi governor to stop the violence against the Freedom Riders – No violence to the riders but the state could arrest them

Violence in Birmingham MLK Jr. decided that the federal government only intervened when the

Violence in Birmingham MLK Jr. decided that the federal government only intervened when the threat of violence was too high King was arrested following a protest against the violence towards the Freedom Riders When released, King continued the protests and the mayor responded with police using clubs, police dogs, and high-pressure fire hoses Outraged at the violence, Kennedy ordered his advisors to begin drafting a civil rights bill

The March on Washington August 28, 1964 more than 200, 000 demonstrators gathered in

The March on Washington August 28, 1964 more than 200, 000 demonstrators gathered in Washington DC Protestors heard many speeches from influential civil rights leaders King delivered his famous “I Have a Dream” speech

Civil Rights Act of 1964 Civil rights bill came before the Senate and the

Civil Rights Act of 1964 Civil rights bill came before the Senate and the southern Senators used a filibuster (refusing to stop speaking in Congress) Civil Rights bill passed in the House in February 1964 Finally, Johnson signed the bill into law on July 2, 1964 Gave federal government broad power to prevent racial discrimination – Made it illegal to segregate in most public accommodations – All citizens have equal access to public facilities

Selma March January, 1965 SCLC and Dr. King selected Selma, Alabama as the focal

Selma March January, 1965 SCLC and Dr. King selected Selma, Alabama as the focal point for voting rights African Americans were the majority of the town, but only made up 3% of registered voters The local sheriff deputized and armed dozens of white citizens to prevent blacks from voting Demonstrations in Selma led to 2, 000 arrests March 7, 1965 King and the SNCC organized a “march for freedom” from Selma to Montgomery More than 200 state troopers and deputized citizens rushed the marchers and beat many – “Bloody Sunday”

Voting Rights Act of 1965 August 3, 1965 House passed the voting rights bill

Voting Rights Act of 1965 August 3, 1965 House passed the voting rights bill and the Senate passed it on the next day Authorized the US Attorney General to send federal examiners to register qualified voters, bypassing local officials who often refused to register African Americans Suspended discriminatory devices in counties where less than half of all adults had been registered to vote

Urban Problems Racism was still common in American society, even following the passage of

Urban Problems Racism was still common in American society, even following the passage of civil rights laws Poverty trapped many blacks in the inner cities 1965 only 15% of blacks held professional, managerial, or clerical jobs Unemployment was twice that of whites Neighborhoods were overcrowded and dirty, which led to a higher rate of illness and infant mortality Crime rate was also increasing with the rate of young people dropping out of high school

Watts Riot Watts an African American neighborhood in Los Angeles Allegations of police brutality

Watts Riot Watts an African American neighborhood in Los Angeles Allegations of police brutality led to an uprising which lasted for six days Rioters burned and looted entire neighborhoods and destroyed $45 million in property More riots broke out across the nation between 1965 -68 – Detroit: 1967, burning, looting and skirmishes with police and National Guard. Resulted in 43 deaths and over 1, 000 wounded

Kerner Commission Johnson appointed the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders to study the

Kerner Commission Johnson appointed the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders to study the causes of urban riots Kerner Commission blamed racism for most of the problems “Our nation is moving toward two societies, one black, one white – separate and unequal”

Shift to Economic Rights King focused his attention to improving the economic conditions in

Shift to Economic Rights King focused his attention to improving the economic conditions in Chicago Movement King and his wife moved into a slum in Chicago to call attention to the horrible conditions King began a march in Chicago and was met with an angry crowd Richard J. Daley ordered the Chicago police to protect the marchers and prevent violence Daley met with King to discussed ideas to improve conditions in Chicago

Black Power After the limited success of King in Chicago, many blacks turned away

Black Power After the limited success of King in Chicago, many blacks turned away from non-violent protest Black Power African Americans should control the social, political, and economic direction of their struggle Stressed pride in African American culture and emphasized racial distinctiveness rather than assimilation

Malcolm X Born Malcolm Little in Omaha, Nebraska, he came to embody the black

Malcolm X Born Malcolm Little in Omaha, Nebraska, he came to embody the black power movement 1946 Convicted of burglary and sent to prison for six years He joined the Nation of Islam, commonly known as Black Muslims led by Elijah Muhammad Black nationalism African Americans should separate themselves from whites and form their own self-governing community

Malcolm X Became Malcolm X to symbolize the lost African name of his ancestors

Malcolm X Became Malcolm X to symbolize the lost African name of his ancestors Black Muslims viewed themselves as their own nation and ran their own businesses, schools, and newspaper They did not advocate violence, but they did advocate selfdefense Malcolm X broke with the Nation of Islam and later criticized the organization February, 1965 Malcolm X was killed by organization members

Black Panthers Malcolm X’s ideas about black power, black nationalism, and economic self-sufficiency influenced

Black Panthers Malcolm X’s ideas about black power, black nationalism, and economic self-sufficiency influenced many blacks Black Panthers organization formed by Huey Newton in 1966 They believed that revolution was necessary and urged African Americans to arm themselves and prepare to force whites to grant them equal rights

King is Assassinated By the late 1960 s, the civil rights movement had fragmented

King is Assassinated By the late 1960 s, the civil rights movement had fragmented into dozens of competing organizations with differing philosophies King when to Memphis in 1968 to support a strike of African American sanitation workers April 4, 1968 King is assassinated on his hotel balcony In the wake of King’s death, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1968 – Fair-housing provision outlawing discrimination in housing sales and rentals – Justice Department had the power to bring suits against discrimination