The Civil Rights Movement Civil rights in the

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The Civil Rights Movement

The Civil Rights Movement

Civil rights in the 1950 s

Civil rights in the 1950 s

Brown v. Topeka Board of Education • Overturned Plessey v. Ferguson – Separate but

Brown v. Topeka Board of Education • Overturned Plessey v. Ferguson – Separate but equal • Parents wanted to send their children to closer elementary schools – High schools were already integrated • Separate is inherently not equal – Begins integration of all schools nationally

Montgomery Bus Boycott • Blacks are forced to give up their seats if whites

Montgomery Bus Boycott • Blacks are forced to give up their seats if whites want to sit • Rosa Parks – Worked in a NAACP office – Refuses to give up her seat – She is arrested • Used her arrest to rally the people

Montgomery Bus Boycot • Highly organized campaign led by local leaders – Headed by

Montgomery Bus Boycot • Highly organized campaign led by local leaders – Headed by Martin Luther King • Blacks refused to ride the bus – Make sure that people can get to where they need to go • Car pooling • Black Taxis lowered their rates • White housewives drove their domestics – Began as a one day thing • Continued for over a year

Little Rock Nine • 9 black students enrolled in Little Rock Central High school

Little Rock Nine • 9 black students enrolled in Little Rock Central High school –In accordance with Brown v. Board of Education –Were hand chosen by NAACP and school board • Governor Orval Faubus –Used the National Guard to keep them out –Backfired

Little Rock Nine • The Federal government gets involved – Eisenhower reluctant to act

Little Rock Nine • The Federal government gets involved – Eisenhower reluctant to act • Sworn to uphold the constitution – Federalizes the national guard – Sends members of 101 st Airborne of the Army to protect them • They protect them in school for the year • Still physically and verbally abused

Non-Violent protests

Non-Violent protests

Sit Ins First used in 1940 s by CORE Woolworths Lunch Counter A national

Sit Ins First used in 1940 s by CORE Woolworths Lunch Counter A national department store The first major sit in movement 4 college students walk in and sit down Refuse to leave until they are served Joined the next day by more people Hundreds of students by day 5 Much bigger movement than planned

The Greensboro Movement Students with ties to NAACP Put a younger face on the

The Greensboro Movement Students with ties to NAACP Put a younger face on the movement Young respectable students Very organized movement Protest in public places Usually at restaurants and lunch counters Fast results Small companies could not wait it out Violence and intimidation Over 2, 000 arrests in 78 cities “arrests are a badge of honor”

Freedom Rides Started with CORE in 1960 Follow integration of federal institutions Interstate travel

Freedom Rides Started with CORE in 1960 Follow integration of federal institutions Interstate travel included in coverage Started in Virginia going south

Freedom Rides Stopped in Alabama by mobs Slashed tires and forced stoppage Lit the

Freedom Rides Stopped in Alabama by mobs Slashed tires and forced stoppage Lit the bus on fire and refused to let them leave Beat them once they got off with bats and chains Whites were singled out Were refused hospital service Arrested many of the riders Members of mob were police officers and FBI informant

Freedom Rides Bobby Kennedy sent federal marshals to protect the busses and riders Deal

Freedom Rides Bobby Kennedy sent federal marshals to protect the busses and riders Deal with governors; allow protection and federal government wont arrest police for violating law SNCC takes over freedom rides in 1961 Take the media with them Had a field day Marshalls finally ordered to restore peace

The Albany Movement After success of freedom rides Begun in Albany Georgia by SNCC

The Albany Movement After success of freedom rides Begun in Albany Georgia by SNCC and NAACP King and SCLC come in later Against segregation in all aspects of the city Busses, libraries, lunch counters etc. Began boycotts and marches Want to discuss changes with city leaders

The Albany Movement King arrives in December Irritates the local leaders See his as

The Albany Movement King arrives in December Irritates the local leaders See his as sweeping in and taking over their project Tends to rule with strong hand People see him as inspiration

The Albany Movement The Movement begins to fail Non-violent protests met with non-violent resistance

The Albany Movement The Movement begins to fail Non-violent protests met with non-violent resistance Peacefully removed people to jails Joined them in prayer before arresting them Would send prisoners to other jails no prevent filling his Did not let the national press report the worst

The Albany Movement The movement begins to fail Martin Luther King Jr. is jailed

The Albany Movement The movement begins to fail Martin Luther King Jr. is jailed Pritchett quietly releases him to prevent protests Quietly leaves town

The Albany movement Albany is unsuccessful After months of protests it just dies out

The Albany movement Albany is unsuccessful After months of protests it just dies out No progress was being made King gave up and left Puppy is sad it failed

Integration of Ole Miss James Meredith applies to the University of Mississippi Was a

Integration of Ole Miss James Meredith applies to the University of Mississippi Was a civilian, with no ties to any civil rights groups He wanted citizens rights, not civil rights Hoped to force the Kennedy Administration to act After denial twice, he is finally admitted through legal actions 29 years old

Integration of Ole Miss Sparks fights and riots on campus Kennedy sends Marshals and

Integration of Ole Miss Sparks fights and riots on campus Kennedy sends Marshals and Guard troops Two people die in a “battle” between students and soldiers Meredith is escorted by armed guards at all times Attend class with him Meredith graduates in 1963 with a degree in political science

Birmingham Movement (1962) Birmingham one of the most racially divided cities in the south

Birmingham Movement (1962) Birmingham one of the most racially divided cities in the south “Bombingham” Organized by King and SCLC Began with boycotts of white establishments Goal of forcing integrated hiring practices and service Committee to oversee scholastic integration

Birmingham movement Bull Connor Commissioner of Public Safety in Birmingham Was targeted by protestors

Birmingham movement Bull Connor Commissioner of Public Safety in Birmingham Was targeted by protestors They knew he would react with violence Planned to use it in media Prevents intervention while blacks are being beaten Part of mob stopping freedom riders Did as much for civil rights as Abe Lincoln

Birmingham Movement Adults begin more aggressive protesting and are arrested Sit-ins, marches, and voter

Birmingham Movement Adults begin more aggressive protesting and are arrested Sit-ins, marches, and voter registration drive Soon not enough adults to continue Enlist students and youth to continue Controversial by many King is in jail for weeks Writes Letters from a Birmingham Jail

Birmingham Movement Children’s march Students skipped school to march to government More than 600

Birmingham Movement Children’s march Students skipped school to march to government More than 600 students are jailed No longer enough room in jails Use of Fire hoses and police dogs An attempt to keep them out of downtown Set at a level “that would peel bark off a tree” Police dogs released on students

Birmingham movement Turning point in the local and national campaign LIFE photographers and other

Birmingham movement Turning point in the local and national campaign LIFE photographers and other media are there Capture the days events on film Reach Europe and the Soviet Union

Birmingham Movement Turning point (cont) City leaders eventually give in Agree to desegregate lunch

Birmingham Movement Turning point (cont) City leaders eventually give in Agree to desegregate lunch counters and parks A very slow integration after the movement Attacks on homes of leaders Birmingham Church is bombed, killing 4 Kennedy addresses the nation about civil rights The world was awakened to the evils of segregation

March on Washington Origins Wanted to be a political support of Kennedy’s civil rights

March on Washington Origins Wanted to be a political support of Kennedy’s civil rights bill Kennedy tried to sidestep it fearing it would alienate congressmen Planned by A. Philip Randolph African-American union leader Planned the political side of it Coalition of almost all organizations and leaders Not supported by everyone Malcolm X felt the March was too “white” Not angry enough

March on Washington The March on Washington for jobs and freedom On August 28,

March on Washington The March on Washington for jobs and freedom On August 28, 1963 ~100 years after emancipation proclamation Roughly 200, 000300, 000 participants 75 -80% black From the Washington Monument to Lincoln Memorial

March on Washington Leaders were left behind in beginning Differing views on purpose Some

March on Washington Leaders were left behind in beginning Differing views on purpose Some saw it as support for Civil Rights Act Some as a way to raise civic and economic issues Others (mostly the youth) saw it as challenging Kennedy administration

March on Washington Speakers and speeches Leaders of all the civil rights organizations Religious

March on Washington Speakers and speeches Leaders of all the civil rights organizations Religious leaders Catholic, Jewish, Protestant John Lewis President of SNCC Upset with Kennedy administration Does not go far enough Needs to protect blacks and civil rights workers in the south Conservative leaders removed parts of his speech thought too antagonistic Seen as censorship and weakening of speech

Martin Luther King Jr. Most well remembered speaker of the day More for his

Martin Luther King Jr. Most well remembered speaker of the day More for his oratory skills than the speech itself Marked him as a danger to the United States Could gather and influence a large following

Martin Luther King Jr. “I Have a Dream” 17 minutes long Drew on the

Martin Luther King Jr. “I Have a Dream” 17 minutes long Drew on the declaration, constitution, and Emancipation Proclamation A call to Americas mythic origins As a place founded to provide freedom and justice for all

March on Washington Success of the march Brought civil rights to the forefront of

March on Washington Success of the march Brought civil rights to the forefront of national consciousness Put strength behind the civil rights act Still not passed until after Kennedy’s death Still celebrated every five years

Freedom Summer A. K. A. Mississippi Summer Project Attempt to get as many African

Freedom Summer A. K. A. Mississippi Summer Project Attempt to get as many African American to vote as possible Had the fewest number of blacks registered to vote Harassed or intimidated them to keep them from voting Lynchings, Poll Taxes, Literacy tests Supported and organized by The four major civil rights organizations NAACP, SNCC, SCLC, CORE

Freedom Summer The mock Freedom Vote In 1963 Designed to show many blacks would

Freedom Summer The mock Freedom Vote In 1963 Designed to show many blacks would vote if not intimidated The Volunteers Students were recruited from all states About 90% where white Many of them Jewish Doctors and nurses provided emergency care to the volunteers Lawyers provided free legal services

Freedom Summer The Violence Drive-bys, Molotov cocktails, arson 37 churches bombed or burned 30

Freedom Summer The Violence Drive-bys, Molotov cocktails, arson 37 churches bombed or burned 30 black homes or businesses bombed or burned 80 workers beaten

Freedom Summer Successes Not successful in registering many new voters Brought persecution of black

Freedom Summer Successes Not successful in registering many new voters Brought persecution of black voters to national attention Lives of rich white northerners makes media Helped passage of voting rights act of 1965

Freedom Summer The killing of 3 Civil rights workers June 21, 1964 Philadelphia, Mississippi

Freedom Summer The killing of 3 Civil rights workers June 21, 1964 Philadelphia, Mississippi Neshoba County James Chaney (black), Michael Schwerner (Jewish), Andrew Goodman (Jewish) Arrested and jailed until nightfall in Released to a waiting crowd that abducted and killed them Schwerner and Goodman shot point blank Chaney was chased, beaten, and shot 3 times

Freedom Summer Appeals to the FBI As soon as they went missing local leaders

Freedom Summer Appeals to the FBI As soon as they went missing local leaders were calling the FBI Initially refused It was a local matter After 36 hours Robert Kennedy ordered an investigation Set up first branch office in July Trudged through swamps and woods searching for bodies Found 8 other black men Found the three bodies in earthen dam in August

Freedom Summer Arrests Arrested eighteen men, including Edgar Ray Killen Only convicted seven men

Freedom Summer Arrests Arrested eighteen men, including Edgar Ray Killen Only convicted seven men One was a deputy sheriff Hung jury for the rest Edgar Ray Killen brought up on charges again In 2005 (80 years old) After research by students and a reporter Found guilty and serving 320 year sentences

The Black Power Movement

The Black Power Movement

African American Anger After the civil rights laws movement begins to loose steam Height

African American Anger After the civil rights laws movement begins to loose steam Height of the civil rights movement was early 60 s The laws were done, but weren’t enough FBI only involved in Mississippi because of the white boys Hoover was reluctant in the first place People disappeared before but nothing was done The movement was going too slow

Malcolm X Born Malcolm Little Changed to drop the “slave” name Joined the Nation

Malcolm X Born Malcolm Little Changed to drop the “slave” name Joined the Nation of Islam Founded in 1933 by Elijah Muhammad Allah will bring a “Black nation” Whites were the enemy of the Nation of Islam Work hard to become self sufficient Do not need the white man to help you

Malcolm X Believed integration would not really work Blacks and whites don’t really want

Malcolm X Believed integration would not really work Blacks and whites don’t really want integration Only total separation would lead to success Have two completely separate societies Blacks need to take care of themselves Even if it means working against the white man “reverse racism”

Malcolm X Leaves the Nation of Islam Elijah Muhammad jealous of his popularity Rebukes

Malcolm X Leaves the Nation of Islam Elijah Muhammad jealous of his popularity Rebukes him for comment about Kennedy assassination “chickens coming home to roost”; bad actions having consequences Makes a pilgrimage to Mecca Converts to Sunni Islam Regrets his previous statements against whites Still believes in self sufficiency Not racism

Malcolm X Leaves the Nation of Islam Begins speaking against Nation of Islam Becomes

Malcolm X Leaves the Nation of Islam Begins speaking against Nation of Islam Becomes more peaceful More like King Assassinated by 3 members of nation of Islam February 21, 1965 At a speech in Manhattan 21 shots in him

Malcolm X Legacy Large following in the black community Felt that he could articulate

Malcolm X Legacy Large following in the black community Felt that he could articulate what the felt about civil rights Reunited them with their African roots Large influence on the Black power movement

Black Power Stokely Carmichael Former SNCC leader Purged white members in 1966 Becomes more

Black Power Stokely Carmichael Former SNCC leader Purged white members in 1966 Becomes more violent Attended prestigious black college in DC Jailed over 25 times Got tired of putting up with it March in Greenwood (1966) Interrupts peaceful march with chants of Black Power Taken by the media and over exaggerated Major leader in early black power movement Not a racist or political movement

Black Power New Black identity Black is beautiful The positives of being black From

Black Power New Black identity Black is beautiful The positives of being black From negro to Afro More acknowledgement of African roots Are African and American

Black Power The Black Panthers Originated in Oakland CA 1966 Represent black power in

Black Power The Black Panthers Originated in Oakland CA 1966 Represent black power in politics Combine black power with Marxism A militant group Wear militaryesque uniforms Only when cameras around Patrol streets and protect blacks with weapons Protect them from police brutality Caused deaths of both black panthers and officers Power flows from the barrel of a gun

Black Power Black Panthers (cont) Nonviolent activities School breakfast programs Black history lectures Drug

Black Power Black Panthers (cont) Nonviolent activities School breakfast programs Black history lectures Drug prevention education Party ends in 1972 FBI infiltration from the beginning Exploit fights between leaders Imprisoned for law enforcement killings Legal battles cost money Differences in ideology split the party

In pop culture Muhammad Ali Most visible black radical in pop culture Close friends

In pop culture Muhammad Ali Most visible black radical in pop culture Close friends with Malcolm X 1968 Olympics Leaders want black athletes to boycott games The black power salute on the podium It is an act of aggression at peaceful games

1968: Riots, Assassinations, and Elections oh my

1968: Riots, Assassinations, and Elections oh my

Riots Detroit Riot (July 1967) Sparked by a police raid on unlicensed bar Arrested

Riots Detroit Riot (July 1967) Sparked by a police raid on unlicensed bar Arrested everyone inside Onlookers begin looting local stores Grows to include hundreds Police could not be amassed fast enough It was a Sunday Let looting continue because not enough people State Police called in Windsor police asked to help check fingerprints

Riots Detroit Riot Violence escalates Police pinned by snipers on Monday Governor Romney sends

Riots Detroit Riot Violence escalates Police pinned by snipers on Monday Governor Romney sends Michigan National Guard Fires and looting all over 12 th street Mostly black stores Federal troops called in on Tuesday Riot lasts for 5 days Legacy Surpassed only by New York in Civil war and 1992 LA riots 43 dead, 467 injured, 7, 231 arrested

Riots Baltimore April 6 -14 1968 One of 125 riots that week Holy Week

Riots Baltimore April 6 -14 1968 One of 125 riots that week Holy Week Uprising Began as a peaceful memorial service Started slowly Some broken windows By 6 pm reports of fires Declaration of 11 pm curfew Call in 6000 national guard troops Were waiting and ready Call for federal troops Took a few days to reassert control Most of the violence over by the 9 th

Riots Chicago Democratic National Convention In Chicago The Yippies (youth international party) A youth

Riots Chicago Democratic National Convention In Chicago The Yippies (youth international party) A youth counterculture movement in the 60 s Planned a protest against the state of the nation during the convention Anti-war demonstrations Mostly theatric or pranking Nomination of Pigasus

Riots Chicago (cont) Clashes with the police Mayor Daley used the police to maintain

Riots Chicago (cont) Clashes with the police Mayor Daley used the police to maintain order Police used violent tactics in attempt to maintain order Both around the convention and in Grant Park Use of tear gas and mace Enough to disturb Humphrey in his hotel room Supported by the viewers at home More concerned about the war and saw the protests as a nuisance Daley received letters supporting him

Riots Chicago (cont) Turning point against the democratic party The whole thing was a

Riots Chicago (cont) Turning point against the democratic party The whole thing was a disaster for the democrats “the night America voted for Nixon” “I think we’ve got a bunch of thugs here, Dan”

Assassinations Martin Luther King Jr. Killed April 6, 1968 In Memphis Tennessee in support

Assassinations Martin Luther King Jr. Killed April 6, 1968 In Memphis Tennessee in support of black sanitary workers Striking since March 12 On the second balcony of the Lorraine Motel Shot in the head Pronounced dead about 1 hour later Assassin James Earl Ray Sparked Riots in over 100 cities

Assassinations Bobby Kennedy June 6, 1968 Running for Democratic presidential nominee The front runner

Assassinations Bobby Kennedy June 6, 1968 Running for Democratic presidential nominee The front runner Shot in the Ambassador Hotel after a speech Won the California primary Handler’s took him through the kitchen Shot 3 times by Sirhan A Palestinian angry over his support of Israel

The Election Independent George Wallace Carries 46 electoral votes Democrat Hubert Humphrey Huge divide

The Election Independent George Wallace Carries 46 electoral votes Democrat Hubert Humphrey Huge divide in the democratic party As evidenced at the convention Not helped by death of Kennedy Republican Richard Nixon Wins the presidency 301 electoral votes