The character of stigma and the stigma of

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The character of stigma and the stigma of character A HISTORY OF THE SOCIAL

The character of stigma and the stigma of character A HISTORY OF THE SOCIAL QUESTION AND CHARACTER DISCOURSE IN BRITAIN Nicholas Taylor, IAS Early Career Fellow PAIS, University of Warwick

The major reason why Britain is rougher and more uncivilised than it was in

The major reason why Britain is rougher and more uncivilised than it was in the early post-war period has been the collapse of the politics of character. These politics dominated the debate from the mid. Victorian period up until the middle of the last century. Frank Field MP, 2010

Historical perspectives on the Social Question Helen Bosanquet (1860 -1925) Hubert Llewellyn Smith (1864

Historical perspectives on the Social Question Helen Bosanquet (1860 -1925) Hubert Llewellyn Smith (1864 -1945) Alfred Marshall (1842 -1924) William Stanley Jevons (1835 -1882)

This power of anticipation must have a large influence in Economics; for upon it

This power of anticipation must have a large influence in Economics; for upon it is based all accumulation of stocks of commodity to be consumed at a future time. That class or race of men who have the most foresight will work most for the future. The untutored savage, like the child, is wholly occupied with the pleasures of the moment; the morrow is dimly felt; the limit of his horizon is but a few days off. The wants of a future year, or of a lifetime, are wholly unforeseen. But, in a state of civilisation, a vague though powerful feeling of the future is the main incentive to industry and saving. (Jevons [1911] 2013: 35)

No universal rule can be laid down; but experience seems to show that the

No universal rule can be laid down; but experience seems to show that the more ignorant and phlegmatic of races and of individuals, especially if they live in a southern clime, will stay at their work a shorter time, and will exert themselves less while at it, if the rate of pay rises so as to give them their accustomed enjoyments in return for less work than before. But those whose mental horizon is wider, and who have more firmness and elasticity of character, will work the harder and the longer the higher the rate of pay which is open to them; unless indeed they prefer to divert their activities to higher aims than work for material gain. (Marshall [1920] 2013: 438 -439)

[While] the ideal economic man. . . is remarkable for his foresight and self-control.

[While] the ideal economic man. . . is remarkable for his foresight and self-control. . . in the Residuum these qualities are entirely absent. (Dendy 1893: 601) … the curve represents a constantly recurring process. With his debts cleared off, and a week’s wages in hand, the final utility of the reward is so small that he has absolutely no inducement to work. (Dendy 1893: 603)

Education must be made more thorough. The schoolmaster must learn that his main duty

Education must be made more thorough. The schoolmaster must learn that his main duty is not to impart knowledge, for a few shillings will buy more printed knowledge than a man’s brain can hold. It is to educate character, faculties and activities. . . (Marshall [1920] 2013: 597)