The Cell Membrane AP Biology Overview Cell membrane

  • Slides: 37
Download presentation
The Cell Membrane AP Biology

The Cell Membrane AP Biology

Overview § Cell membrane separates living cell from nonliving surroundings u thin barrier =

Overview § Cell membrane separates living cell from nonliving surroundings u thin barrier = 8 nm thick § Controls traffic in & out of the cell u u selectively permeable allows some substances to cross more easily than others § hydrophobic vs hydrophilic § Made of phospholipids, proteins & other macromolecules AP Biology

Phospholipids § Fatty acid tails u hydrophobic § Phosphate group head u hydrophilic §

Phospholipids § Fatty acid tails u hydrophobic § Phosphate group head u hydrophilic § Arranged as a bilayer AP Biology Phosphate Fatty acid

Phospholipid bilayer polar hydrophilic heads nonpolar hydrophobic tails polar hydrophilic heads AP Biology

Phospholipid bilayer polar hydrophilic heads nonpolar hydrophobic tails polar hydrophilic heads AP Biology

More than lipids… § In 1972, S. J. Singer & G. Nicolson proposed that

More than lipids… § In 1972, S. J. Singer & G. Nicolson proposed that membrane proteins are inserted into the phospholipid bilayer AP Biology

Membrane is a collage of proteins & other molecules embedded in the fluid matrix

Membrane is a collage of proteins & other molecules embedded in the fluid matrix of the lipid bilayer Glycoprotein Extracellular fluid Glycolipid Phospholipids Cholesterol Peripheral protein AP Biology Cytoplasm Transmembrane proteins Filaments of cytoskeleton

Membrane fat composition varies § Fat composition affects flexibility u membrane must be fluid

Membrane fat composition varies § Fat composition affects flexibility u membrane must be fluid & flexible § about as fluid as thick salad oil u % unsaturated fatty acids in phospholipids § keep membrane less viscous § cold-adapted organisms, like winter wheat w increase % in autumn u AP Biology cholesterol in membrane

Membrane Proteins § Proteins determine membrane’s specific functions u cell membrane & organelle membranes

Membrane Proteins § Proteins determine membrane’s specific functions u cell membrane & organelle membranes each have unique collections of proteins § Membrane proteins: u peripheral proteins § loosely bound to surface of membrane § cell surface identity marker (antigens) u integral proteins § penetrate lipid bilayer, usually across whole membrane § transmembrane protein § transport proteins w channels, permeases (pumps) AP Biology

Classes of amino acids What do these amino acids have in common? nonpolar &

Classes of amino acids What do these amino acids have in common? nonpolar & hydrophobic AP Biology

Classes of amino acids What do these amino acids have in common? AP Biology

Classes of amino acids What do these amino acids have in common? AP Biology polar & hydrophilic

Proteins domains anchor molecule § Within membrane u Polar areas of protein nonpolar amino

Proteins domains anchor molecule § Within membrane u Polar areas of protein nonpolar amino acids § hydrophobic § anchors protein into membrane § On outer surfaces of membrane u polar amino acids § hydrophilic § extend into extracellular fluid & into cytosol AP Biology Nonpolar areas of protein

H+ Examples Retinal chromophore NH 2 water channel in bacteria Porin monomer b-pleated sheets

H+ Examples Retinal chromophore NH 2 water channel in bacteria Porin monomer b-pleated sheets Bacterial outer membrane Nonpolar (hydrophobic) a-helices in the cell membrane COOH H+ Cytoplasm proton pump channel in photosynthetic bacteria AP Biology function through conformational change = shape change

Many Functions of Membrane Proteins Outside Plasma membrane Inside AP Biology Transporter Enzyme activity

Many Functions of Membrane Proteins Outside Plasma membrane Inside AP Biology Transporter Enzyme activity Cell surface receptor Cell surface identity marker Cell adhesion Attachment to the cytoskeleton

Membrane carbohydrates § Play a key role in cell-cell recognition u ability of a

Membrane carbohydrates § Play a key role in cell-cell recognition u ability of a cell to distinguish one cell from another § antigens important in organ & tissue development u basis for rejection of foreign cells by immune system u AP Biology

Movement across the Cell Membrane AP Biology

Movement across the Cell Membrane AP Biology

Diffusion § 2 nd Law of Thermodynamics governs biological systems u universe tends towards

Diffusion § 2 nd Law of Thermodynamics governs biological systems u universe tends towards disorder (entropy) § Diffusion u AP Biology movement from high low concentration

Diffusion § Move from HIGH to LOW concentration “passive transport” u no energy needed

Diffusion § Move from HIGH to LOW concentration “passive transport” u no energy needed u AP Biology diffusion movement of water osmosis

Diffusion across cell membrane § Cell membrane is the boundary between inside & outside…

Diffusion across cell membrane § Cell membrane is the boundary between inside & outside… u separates cell from its environment Can it be an impenetrable boundary? NO! OUT IN food carbohydrates sugars, proteins amino acids lipids salts, O 2, H 2 O AP Biology OUT IN waste ammonia salts CO 2 H 2 O products cell needs materials in & products or waste out

Diffusion through phospholipid bilayer § What molecules can get through directly? u fats &

Diffusion through phospholipid bilayer § What molecules can get through directly? u fats & other lipids inside cell NH 3 § What molecules can lipid salt NOT get through directly? u polar molecules § H 2 O u outside cell sugar aa H 2 O ions § salts, ammonia u large molecules § starches, proteins AP Biology

Channels through cell membrane § Membrane becomes semi-permeable with protein channels u specific channels

Channels through cell membrane § Membrane becomes semi-permeable with protein channels u specific channels allow specific material across cell membrane inside cell NH AP Biology 3 salt H 2 O aa sugar outside cell

Facilitated Diffusion § Diffusion through protein channels u u channels move specific molecules across

Facilitated Diffusion § Diffusion through protein channels u u channels move specific molecules across cell membrane facilitated = with help no energy needed open channel = fast transport high low AP Biology “The Bouncer”

Active Transport § Cells may need to move molecules against concentration gradient u u

Active Transport § Cells may need to move molecules against concentration gradient u u u shape change transports solute from one side of membrane to other protein “pump” conformational change “costs” energy = ATP low ATP high AP Biology “The Doorman”

Active transport § Many models & mechanisms ATP AP Biology ATP antiport symport

Active transport § Many models & mechanisms ATP AP Biology ATP antiport symport

Getting through cell membrane § Passive Transport u Simple diffusion § diffusion of nonpolar,

Getting through cell membrane § Passive Transport u Simple diffusion § diffusion of nonpolar, hydrophobic molecules w lipids w high low concentration gradient u Facilitated transport § diffusion of polar, hydrophilic molecules § through a protein channel w high low concentration gradient § Active transport u diffusion against concentration gradient § low high u u AP Biology uses a protein pump requires ATP

Transport summary simple diffusion facilitated diffusion active transport AP Biology ATP

Transport summary simple diffusion facilitated diffusion active transport AP Biology ATP

How about large molecules? § Moving large molecules into & out of cell through

How about large molecules? § Moving large molecules into & out of cell through vesicles & vacuoles u endocytosis u § phagocytosis = “cellular eating” § pinocytosis = “cellular drinking” u AP Biology exocytosis

Endocytosis phagocytosis fuse with lysosome for digestion pinocytosis non-specific process receptor-mediated endocytosis triggered by

Endocytosis phagocytosis fuse with lysosome for digestion pinocytosis non-specific process receptor-mediated endocytosis triggered by molecular signal AP Biology

The Special Case of Water Movement of water across the cell membrane AP Biology

The Special Case of Water Movement of water across the cell membrane AP Biology

Osmosis is diffusion of water § Water is very important to life, § so

Osmosis is diffusion of water § Water is very important to life, § so we talk about water separately Diffusion of water from high concentration of water to low concentration of water u AP Biology across a semi-permeable membrane

Concentration of water § Direction of osmosis is determined by comparing total solute concentrations

Concentration of water § Direction of osmosis is determined by comparing total solute concentrations u Hypertonic - more solute, less water u Hypotonic - less solute, more water u Isotonic - equal solute, equal water AP Biology hypotonic hypertonic net movement of water

Managing water balance § Cell survival depends on balancing water uptake & loss AP

Managing water balance § Cell survival depends on balancing water uptake & loss AP Biology freshwater balanced saltwater

Managing water balance § Isotonic u animal cell immersed in mild salt solution §

Managing water balance § Isotonic u animal cell immersed in mild salt solution § example: blood cells in blood plasma § problem: none w no net movement of water n flows across membrane equally, in both directions w volume of cell is stable AP Biology balanced

Managing water balance § Hypotonic u a cell in fresh water § example: Paramecium

Managing water balance § Hypotonic u a cell in fresh water § example: Paramecium § problem: gains water, swells & can burst w water continually enters Paramecium cell § solution: contractile vacuole w pumps water out of cell ATP w ATP u AP Biology plant cells § turgid freshwater

Managing water balance § Hypertonic u a cell in salt water § example: shellfish

Managing water balance § Hypertonic u a cell in salt water § example: shellfish § problem: lose water & die § solution: take up water or pump out salt u plant cells § plasmolysis = wilt AP Biology saltwater

1991 | 2003 Aquaporins § Water moves rapidly into & out of cells u

1991 | 2003 Aquaporins § Water moves rapidly into & out of cells u AP Biology evidence that there water channels Peter Agre Roderick Mac. Kinnon John Hopkins Rockefeller

Osmosis… . 05 M . 03 M Cell (compared to beaker) hypertonic or hypotonic

Osmosis… . 05 M . 03 M Cell (compared to beaker) hypertonic or hypotonic Beaker (compared to cell) hypertonic or hypotonic AP Biology Which way does the water flow? in or out of cell

Any Questions? ? AP Biology

Any Questions? ? AP Biology