THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE “Byzantium is the New Rome!”
Constantinople • Previously known as Byzantium • “The city of Constantine • had large markets, public squares, paved roads, a cathedral, palace, public baths and a hippodrome • Almost half a million people lived here in the early 500’s
Three Names • BYZANTIUM: the city was first called this by the Ancient Greeks • CONSTANTINOPLE: the city was renamed this because it was the “city of Constantine” • ISTANBUL: the city would be renamed this by the Muslim Turks who would take over Constantinople
Justinian • One of the greatest Byzantine emperors • Began to rule in 527 AD • Was born to a poor family • Listened to all subjectswealthy nobles or peasants • Appointed a team to collect and summarize Roman laws • Encouraged education and reforms to laws and government
Justinian’s Code • One of Justinian’s most lasting contributions • A system of laws • An organized collection and explanation of Roman laws for use by the Byzantine Empire • Became the basis(foundation) for the legal systems of most modern European countries
Schism • means split • Refers to the Great Schism of the Christian church in 1054 • Led to different forms of Christianity • Roman Catholic church in the WEST(It. , Fr. , Sp. , Gr) • Eastern(Greek) Orthodox church in the EAST (Greece, Turkey)
Byzantines • People who lived in Constantinople • Mostly Christian • Were in a “tug of war with the Muslim Arab Turks for the Middle East • Powerful civilization
Why did Constantinople become rich & powerful? • built at a major crossroads of trade • Located on the Bosphorus, which connects the Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea • Byzantines charged taxes on ALL GOODS that went through the city.
What cultures influenced Byzantine Civilization ? • Greek-kept and copied works of ancient Greeks • Roman –preserved principles of Roman law • Christian • The blended all 3 influences.
What qualities made Justinian a good and successful ruler? • Listened to everyone • Did not give up on a task until it was finished.
What was happening to the Byzantine Empire after the death of Justinian? • Later emperors fought wars against neighboring enemies • Arguments within the empire weakened it (political and religious)
What caused the Great Schism of the Christian church? EAST WEST • Rejected the authority of the Pope • Allowed the Emperor to approve of a PATRIARCH (highest Church official in Constantinople) instead of Pope • Spoke Greek in church • Did not use Icons/saints • Accepted the authority of the Pope • Did not follow the patriarch • Spoke Latin in church • Permitted the use of icons/saints
The Importance of Icons • Icons are paintings of holy people • Roman Catholic Christians (in the West) often prayed to saints or holy people, represented by icons • The Byzantine emperor banned the use of icons in the 700’s, claiming that they violated God’s commandments
Hagia Sophia • Took 10, 000 workers to build • Was built in 5 years • Is used as a mosque (Muslim place of worship) today
Why did Constantinople finally fall? • Weakened by attacks from Muslim peoples(Seljuk Turks) from the east • Weakened by Christian Crusaders from the west • Finally fell to the Turks in 1453…. then became the Ottoman Empire.
Qualities that made the Byzantine Empire Strong • 1. Excellent armyprotected city • 2. Excellent rulers- wise and popular; encouraged education • 3. Improvements to law and government; Justinian’s Code