The British Empire in India AP World History
India in the 18 th and early 19 th Century
East India Company activity limited to coastal trading cities when the Mughal Empire was strong. In the mid-1700 s, the Mughal Empire broke apart. East India Company exploited the chaos and took over much of India.
Changes in India Introduced new education system. English language. Invited Christian missionaries to spread beliefs.
Changes in India Introduced British laws banning certain customs, such as sati. Some Indians thought British wanted to eliminate Indian customs, especially Hinduism completely tension.
India’s First War of Independence The Great Rebellion The Indian Mutiny The Revolt of 1857 The Rebellion of 1857 The Uprising of 1857 The Sepoy Rebellion The Sepoy Mutiny
The Sepoy Mutiny Sepoys were Indian soldiers who fought in the British army. 300, 000 sepoys v. 50, 000 British
The Sepoy Rebellion Introduction of new type British rifle set off rebellion To load the rifle, soldier had to bite off the end of an ammunition cartridge greased with pork and beef fat. This offended Muslim and Hindu sepoys Muslims did not eat pork. Hindus did not eat beef.
Protest and Punishment during the Sepoy Rebellion Sepoys refused to use cartridges. Thought it was a plot to make them abandon Hinduism and Islam. Sepoys punished for protesting. In response, northern Indian sepoys rose up against British. Eventually gained control of Delhi. Rebellion: extreme violence on both sides.
Siege of Cawnpore British surrendered in exchange for safe passage; instead, sepoys captured 120 fleeing British women and children Rebel soldiers refused to kill; butchers sent in to hack to death and dismembered with meat cleavers Bodies thrown in well to hide evidence, along with a few women and children who survived
Outraged British forces killed 7, 000 locals in retaliation Rebels were forced to lick the floor of the Bibighar compound, after it had been wetted with water by low caste people Forced to eat beef (if Hindu) or pork (if Muslim) Muslim sepoys were sewn into pig skins before being hanged Low-caste Hindus employed to execute the high- caste Brahmin rebels
Results of the Sepoy Rebellion British ended the rule of East India Company in 1858. British government ruled India directly. British moved away from some social regulations that angered many Indians. Distrust still continued.
India as a British Colony For British, India was the “jewel in the crown” of the British Empire. For Indians, British rule was a source of frustration and humiliation.
The Raj and the ICS Era of British rule in India often called British Raj. Hindi word meaning “rule”. Administration carried out by Indian Civil Service (ICS) Though ruling India, most ICS officials were British. Many educated Indians frustrated at having no say in their own government.
Life under the British Raj Building Projects Built railroads, and canals. By 1910, India had the fourth largest railroad network in the world. British invested in transportation to move troops and sell British products.
Life under the British Raj Commerce India was a very important market for British manufactured goods. India was a source of raw materials. • cotton, tea, indigo Taxes from Indian landowners paid for administration of India and the Indian army.
Life under the British Raj Impact of British Commerce British manufactured goods devastated India’s pre-existing textile industry. • Had been major exporter. • British closed factories to prevent competition. By the mid-1800 s, India primary exported raw materials, not manufactured goods.
The Rise of Indian Nationalism Groups in India found British rule deeply disturbing nationalism. Indian elites and middle classes lacked opportunities. Indians had little power to influence decisions at higher levels of government.
India’s Nationalist Movement Writers wrote texts and opened schools to spread nationalist ideas. In 1885, the Indian National Congress was formed. First nationalist group, founded by English-speaking Indians. Initial requests from the Congress to the British were modest. Example was a request for more positions for Indians in the ICS and better representation on government councils.
India as a British Colony Radicals in Congress Called for boycotting British goods. Participants vowed to wear only Indian made clothing; burned British clothing. Some militants attacked British officials, facing severe punishments.
India as a British Colony Consequences British convinced to make concessions to Indian people. In the 1906, the Muslim League was formed to protect the interests of Indian Muslims. Indian National Congress and Muslim League begin to lead the fight for independence. Full independence was not achieved until 1947 after World War II