- Slides: 140
The Blessed Trinity and Our Christian Vocation
The Blessed Trinity Chapter 5
Chapter 5 Jesus Christ True God and True
Chapter Objectives The student will be able to • The “Jesus of • The hypostatic union understand: • • history” and the “Christ of faith” The significance of the Incarnation Historical evidence for the existence of Christ The humanity of Christ The divinity of Christ • • • The Messiah The Redeemer Christ’s freedom Grace How Christ is seen among the major world religions
Keys to Chapter 5 • There is no difference between the “Jesus of History” and the “Christ of faith. ” • In the Incarnation, God has become man. • Mary is the Mother of God, who is now fully human. continued
Keys to Chapter 5 • Jesus Christ is the hypostatic union of a human body, human intellect, and human will with the divine intellect and will of the Second Person of the Blessed Trinity in one divine person. • All Christ’s actions are theandric, that is, human-divine act. • Christ is the Messiah and Redeemer.
For Discussion: • What is the evidence for Christ’s humanity and for his divinity? • What is the meaning of redemption as seen in God’s covenant and the Passion, Death, and Resurrection of Christ? • What is the Incarnation, and why was it necessary to bring about our salvation? • How did Christ fulfill the Old Testament prophecies of the coming Messiah? continued
For Discussion: • What was the saving mission of Christ as presented in the Gospels? • What does each chapter in Christ’s life say about his humanity and his divinity? • What do Christ’s life and teachings mean for our redemption? • What is the perspective on Jesus Christ held by other major world religions?
God Incarnate Lesson Objectives • The “Jesus of history” and the “Christ of faith” • The significance of the Incarnation
God Incarnate Basic Questions What is the relationship between the “Jesus of history” and the “Christ of faith”? Some scholars attempt to divorce the “Jesus of history” from the “Christ of faith, ” reducing the former to a mere man and the latter to a religious fantasy. In reality, the “Jesus of history” and the “Christ of faith” are one and
God Incarnate Basic Questions What is the significance of the Incarnation? The infinite God, who is beyond the limitations of human comprehension, emptied himself to become a man, offering his own life as a sacrifice to reconcile human beings to himself.
Anticipatory Set A cross is an instrument of capital punishment. Read the homily by St. Andrew of Crete (p. 164) and identify how the Cross is the glory and the exaltation of Christ.
Guided Exercise Conduct a think/pair/share using the following question: The scholars of the Jesus Seminar assume miracles did not exist. If the Jesus Seminar has decided most of the Gospels are fictional, is Christianity a lie?
Focus Question What do the terms Jesus of history and Christ of faith mean? The Jesus of history refers to the historical truth about the Person who really lived two thousand years ago. The Christ of faith refers to what religious people believe to be true about the same Person.
Focus Question What is claimed by some about the Christ of faith? It is alleged the Apostles and their communities fabricated certain elements of Christ’s life and teachings in order to win converts or support their beliefs. For example, it is alleged Christ’s disciples hid his body, claimed he had risen from the dead, and then made up much of what Christ said and did, recording it in the
Focus Question What is the Jesus Seminar? It is a group of scholars who periodically meet and debate the authenticity of the various details and statements in the Gospels regarding Christ’s life. They have generally decided the Gospels contain a handful of facts amid many embellishments.
Focus Question What did Pope Benedict XVI say about the historical Jesus some scholars have discovered? He says the historical Jesus discovered by some scholars is a creation of those authors rather than the true, historical Jesus. The Jesus of history and the Christ of faith are one and the same Person.
Focus Question If Christ did not rise from the dead, what would be his importance? He would have been one of many itinerant preachers—of short-lived reputation and questionable views—in first-century Palestine.
Focus Question What does the search for the historical Jesus mean? It means the use of modern historicalcritical methods to discover the truth about who the historical figure Christ really was.
Focus Question What is the significance of the Incarnation? The infinite God, who is beyond the limitations of human comprehension, emptied himself to become man, offering his own life as a sacrifice to reconcile human beings to himself.
Guided Exercise Write a bullet-point summary of the historical evidence for the Resurrection of Christ presented in the paragraph “The Resurrection of Jesus…” (p. 166).
Graphic Organizer Complete the following table about the material presented in “God Incarnate” (p. 168). Christ’s Ordinary Experience Examples of Christ’s Human Suffering Examples of Christ’s Divinity
The Humanity of Christ Lesson Objectives • Historical evidence for the existence of Christ • The humanity of Christ
The Humanity of Christ Basic Questions How can it be known Christ actually existed? Beyond the testimony of his followers, contemporary Jewish and pagan writers attested to the existence of Christ.
The Humanity of Christ Basic Questions What does it mean to say Christ was true man? Christ was truly man, a descendant of Adam through the Blessed Virgin Mary. Like every human being, he experienced emotions and suffered but was without sin; he worked with his hands, thought with a human mind, acted with a human will, and loved with
Anticipatory Set Read about Christ’s behavior in the Temple (Jn 2: 13 -17), and then discuss how Christ must have experienced the emotion of anger without having sinned.
Focus Question What historical evidence exists to conclude Christ really lived? During his life he was seen by thousands of people. There are four authentic accounts of his life (the Gospels) and numerous letters by his followers. Several pagan and Jewish manuscripts attest to his existence.
Focus Question How is Christ a descendant of Adam and Eve? He is the Blessed Virgin Mary’s son and a descendant of Adam and Eve through the line of Abraham and David.
Focus Question Which heretics denied Christ was fully human, having a human nature? The Gnostics denied his humanity.
Focus Question Why did they deny his humanity? They believed taking on human nature was unbecoming of God.
Focus Question What did the Gnostics believe about Christ’s Body? That it was an apparition.
Focus Question Why does denial of Christ’s humanity destroy the Faith? This heresy negates the Redemption because, if Christ had no Body, he could not have died on the Cross. They make Christ’s Real Presence in the Eucharist and the Church as the Mystical Body of Christ meaningless.
Focus Question What was St. John’s answer to the Gnostics? Those who deny the coming of Christ in the flesh are deceivers and antichrists.
Focus Question How was Christ’s humanity revealed during his hidden years? He did not manifest his divinity; instead, he worked with human hands, thought with a human mind, acted with a human will, and loved with a human heart.
Graphic Organizer Complete the following table about what is know about Christ from various writers (cf. p. 167). Writer Flavius Josephus Pliny the Younger Emperor Trajan Tacitus Gaius Suetonius Tranquillas Essential Points About Christ
Focus Question What passions did Christ experience? He experienced all natural human passions; love, joy, sorrow, etc.
Focus Question How was Christ’s experience of passions different from ours? Because he was not subject to Original Sin, Christ’s passions were not disordered but always subject to reason and followed the will of his Father.
Guided Exercise Complete a paragraph shrink on the paragraph “The Second Vatican Council… “ (p. 170).
Focus Question What natural defects did Christ accept? He accepted hunger, fatigue, suffering, and death.
Focus Question Why were Christ’s natural defects not punishments? They could not have been punishments because he had no stain of Original Sin; instead, he accepted these defects to atone for people’s sins, to show his human nature and to set an example to follow in suffering.
The Divinity of Christ Lesson Objectives • The Divinity of Christ
The Divinity of Christ Basic Questions Is Jesus Christ God? The Scriptures reveal Jesus Christ to be the true and Only-Begotten Son of God.
Anticipatory Set Incorporate the beginning of the Gospel of St. John (Jn 1: 1 -41) into the Opening Prayer. Then discuss what is revealed about the divinity of Christ.
Focus Question Why did Arians deny the divinity of Christ? Arians taught that being human was incompatible with the greatness and oneness of God. Therefore, Christ was a superior human being and great prophet; he was of similar but not the same nature as God.
Focus Question What does the Nicene Creed affirm about Christ? Christ is begotten of the Father but not created. He is true God, of the same nature as the Father.
Graphic Organizer Complete the following table about knowledge of Christ’s divinity from Scripture. Christ Shows His Divinity Christ is the Son of God. Christ was sent by the Father. Christ taught the fullness of God’s Law. Christ forgave sins. Christ will judge the world. Christ accepted adoration. Christ identified himself with God. Example
Graphic Organizer Complete the following table about Supplementary Reading 4 (p. 186) and make two lists; attributes of Christ as God and attributes of Christ as man. Christ as God Christ as Man
Focus Question How was Christ conceived? He was conceived not by human generation but by the power of the Holy Spirit.
Focus Question Why was the Blessed Virgin Mary told her child will be called holy? Her child was holy both because he was conceived by the power of the Holy Spirit (thus not inheriting Original Sin) and because he is the Son of God, who is All-holy.
Focus Question From whom did Christ receive his human nature? He received it from the Blessed Virgin Mary.
Focus Question Did Christ have a biological father? No; he was begotten of his Father in Heaven.
True God and True Man Lesson Objectives • The hypostatic union
True God and True Man Basic Questions What is the hypostatic union? The hypostatic union is the union of the human and divine natures in the one divine Person of Jesus Christ possesses both a human body and a human intellect and will; he also possesses the divine intellect and will. Christ’s humanity was assumed by the Second Person of the
Anticipatory Set Incorporate the daughter of the ruler of the synagogue and the woman with a hemorrhage (Mk 5: 22 -43) into Opening Prayer and then discuss how these episodes reveal Christ’s humanity and divinity.
Guided Exercise Choose another act of Christ and describe it in terms of a theandric act.
Focus Question What is the hypostatic union? It is the union of two natures, human and divine, in the one Person of Jesus Christ; hypostatic comes from the Greek word hypostasis, or person.
Focus Question When did Christ begin to exist? As God, he is eternal. He began his human nature at his Incarnation.
Focus Question Where is the source of Christ’s two natures? As God the Son, he always possesses his divine nature from the Father. As man, he received his human nature from the Blessed Virgin Mary, his mother.
Focus Question Is Christ part God and part man? No; he is fully God and fully man.
Focus Question How many Persons is Christ? He is one Person, a divine Person.
Focus Question Why is the Blessed Virgin Mary called the Mother of God rather than the Mother of the human nature of Christ? A mother is a mother of a person, not of a nature. The Person to whom she gave birth is the one divine Person, Christ. She is, therefore, Mother of God because she gave birth to the Word of God made flesh.
Focus Question What are the intellects and wills of Christ? Christ has both a human intellect and will and the divine intellect and will.
Focus Question How do Christ’s two intellects and wills relate to one another? His human intellect and will are perfectly subordinate and united to his divine intellect and will.
Focus Question Why was Christ incapable of sin and completely holy? His human intellect and will were subordinate to and thus directed by his divine intellect and will.
Focus Question Why was it essential for Christ to have free will? This allows his acts to have value by obeying the Father’s will throughout his life and Death on the Cross.
Focus Question How is Christ the New Adam? He obeyed the Father—whereas Adam did not—and his obedience made up for Adam’s disobedience.
Focus Question What does it mean to say Christ’s human nature was assumed, not absorbed? In the hypostatic union, Christ’s human nature was fully present; it did not disappear into the divine nature.
Guided Exercise Conduct a think/pair/share using the following question: Some people have argued Christ was not exactly sure who he was; he gradually become aware he is the Messiah and Son of God. In light of what you have learned about the Incarnation and the hypostatic union, what do you think about this
Focus Question According to Christian philosophy, what do nature and person mean? Nature refers to what makes something to be what it is and act accordingly; it answers the question, “What is this? ” Person refers to what makes someone who has intelligence and free will to be an individual--different from all others of the same nature—and responsible for
Focus Question What are the two qualities that make something a person? Intelligence and free will make something a person.
Focus Question What are theandric acts? Because his natures are united, all Christ’s acts are theandric, or divinehuman, acts.
Focus Question How were Christ’s human and divine natures evident when he was on earth? Christ had the appearance, intellect, will, senses, emotions, and temptations of a human being. Christ was able to perform miracles, preach, teach, and love as God.
Focus Question What distinguishes the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit as Persons in their relationship to one another? The Father begets the Son, the Son is begotten of the Father, and the Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son. This relation is their sole distinction; in every other way, each Person of the Blessed Trinity wholly exists in each
The Promised Messiah Lesson Objectives • The Messiah
The Promised Messiah Basic Questions How does the Old Testament concept of messiah relate to Christ? Jesus is the Messiah promised by the Old Testament prophets.
Anticipatory Set Incorporate Christ’s dramatic announcement in the synagogue in Nazareth (Lk 4: 16 -21) into the Opening Prayer and then discuss the claims Christ made about himself.
Focus Question Who is the Messiah according to the Prophet Daniel? A great Messiah will establish an everlasting Kingdom: “With the clouds of heaven there came one like a son of man… and to him was given dominion and glory and kingdom, that all peoples, nations, and languages should serve him; his dominion is an everlasting dominion,
Focus Question Who is the Son of Man according to the New Testament? Christ refers to himself as the Son of Man.
Guided Exercise Conduct a think/pair/share using the following question: What is the answer to the objection from monotheism; because God is one, Christ can not be God?
Guided Exercise Complete a focused reading of Christ under arrest (cf. Jn 18: 33 -36) using the following question: What can be inferred about Christ’s Messiahship?
Focus Question What does messiah mean? It means anointed. Extension: It refers to one who has had oil poured on his head.
Focus Question Who was anointed in the Old Testament? Men chosen by God were anointed as a sign of God’s favor: kings, priests, and prophets.
Focus Question What did the Prophet Isaiah prophesy about the Messiah? The future Redeemer will be called Immanuel, which means God with us, and he will be divine: “His name will be called “Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace” (Is 9: 6).
Focus Question What are some of Christ’s claims about himself as Son of Man? He is endowed with great authority, for example, Lord of the Sabbath; is the Servant of God who will offer himself up in reparation for sin, and will one day judge the living and the dead.
Focus Question How did Christ reveal his Messiahship to the disciples of St. John the Baptist? He showed them through his actions; “the blind receive their sight and the lame walk, lepers are cleansed and the deaf hear, and the dead are raised up, and the poor have good news preached to them” (Mt 11: 3 -5).
Focus Question Why did most Jews have a hard time accepting Christ’s identification with God? It seemed to clash with the unity of God and God’s transcendent nature.
Focus Question What did the Apostles mean when they referred to Jesus as Christ? They identified him with the promised Messiah foretold by the prophets. Christ is the King of Heaven and earth, the Eternal High Priest who offers himself as a sacrifice for sin, and the Prophet who communicates the fullness of God’s Revelation.
Focus Question What conception of the Messiah did Christ reject? Many Jews were looking for a political/military leader who would drive out the Roman occupiers and restore the great stature the Kingdom of Israel had once occupied. Christ told Pilate his Kingdom is not of this world.
Redemption Lesson Objectives • The Redeemer • Christ’s freedom • Grace
Redemption Basic Questions Who can redeem man? Only God is capable of redeeming human beings from sin, and he did this through his Son, Jesus Christ.
Redemption Basic Questions Did Christ freely save us? Christ freely embraced the Father’s plan of Redemption.
Redemption Basic Questions How are we able to follow Christ? Through the Redemption, Christ gives the grace to follow him.
Anticipatory Set Read the introductory paragraph “As we pray…” (p. 178), and then ask what the following statement means: “[Christ] redeemed humanity from the shackles of sin and death, making it possible for us to be released from our sinfulness. ”
Focus Question Why did God take on human nature? He did this to reconcile people with himself.
Focus Question What does it mean to say the Redemption of Christ only makes sense in light of the Incarnation? Christ is able to save human beings because he took on their human nature.
Focus Question Did God foresee man’s rejection of him in his Incarnation? Yes; to God, everything—past, present, and future—is present simultaneously.
Focus Question Why did God permit the betrayal and crucifixion of Christ? He allowed this to accomplish his plan of salvation.
Focus Question What is the cup of the New Covenant? It is God the Father’s will that his Son sacrifice himself on the Cross for the sins of man.
Focus Question When did Christ offer and accept the cup of redemption? He offered the cup at the Last Supper. He accepted it in the Garden of Gethsemane.
Focus Question How is Christ’s sacrifice a substitution? He substituted himself for sin.
Focus Question Why did this sacrifice have to be made by God? No person could take on the sins of all people and offer him– or herself as a sacrifice for all.
Focus Question How is Christ’s sacrifice the ultimate sign of God’s love? According to John 3: 16 -17, God sent his Son into the world out of love to give eternal life to people.
Focus Question What is the significance of the Resurrection? It confirms the truth of what Christ said and did, is proof of his divinity, fulfills the prophecies of the Old Testament as well as of Christ, reinstates God’s grace, makes people brothers and sisters of Christ, and is the source of future resurrection.
Focus Question Why is the Church important in light of Redemption? The Church is the Sacrament of Salvation because she is the sign and means of communion with God to bring salvation to the world.
Guided Exercise Complete a paragraph shrink of the passage from St. Paul’s Epistle to the Philippians (p. 178).
Guided Exercise Complete a focused reading of the selection from the Redemptor Hominis (p. 179) using the following question: What is the relationship between the Redemption and the Sacraments?
Focus Question What is the consequence of sin according to the creation narrative in Genesis? Death is the consequence. Extension: “Of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat of it you shall die” (Gn 2: 17).
Focus Question How did God show unconditional love for human beings? He allowed his Only-Begotten Son to be crucified for the sins of men.
Focus Question How did Christ fulfill the Old Testament prophecy of the Suffering Servant? He was “like a lamb that is led to the slaughter” and “bore the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors” (cf. Is 53: 7 -12).
Focus Question Why was it not enough for Christ to teach us to live his New Commandment of Love? People are unable to do what is good in a consistent and meaningful manner (concupiscence).
Focus Question What is required to do good? Grace is necessary to advance toward perfection.
Focus Question Where does grace originate? God offers it to each person through his sacrifice on Calvary.
Focus Question Does grace force every person to accept his call? No; Christ’s call is an invitation. He does not take away free will; instead he invites people to live as children of God and makes it possible to achieve happiness.
Guided Exercise Discuss the Parable of the Prodigal Son (cf. Lk 15) using the following question: How are sin and redemption portrayed in this parable?
Focus Question Which Sacrament begins conversion to a new life? Baptism begins conversion.
Focus Question Which of Christ’s parables best illustrates the undeserved and unlimited nature of grace? The Parable of the Prodigal Son illustrates this.
Christ as Viewed in Other Religions Lesson Objectives • How Christ is seen among the major world religions
Christ as Viewed in Other Religions Basic Questions How is Christ seen among the major world religions? Jews see Christ as an influential rabbi who founded a new religion rooted in Judaism. Muslims see Christ as a great prophet, lesser than Muhammad. Buddhists see Christ as an enlightened guide on the spiritual journey. Hindus see Christ as a great spiritual teacher and
Anticipatory Set Review the paragraph “The reality of Jesus Christ…” (p. 181), and then conduct a think/pair/share using the following question: What purpose will this lesson serve?
Focus Question What happened during the twentieth century regarding Jewish thought about Christ? Many Jewish scholars recognized the important role Christ played in Jewish history. They recognized his Hebrew birth and Christianity’s Jewish roots.
Focus Question How do Jewish views of Christ agree with Christianity? He was Hebrew, and most of the first followers of Christ were Hebrews as well.
Focus Question What debt is owed by Christians to Judaism? Christians recognize their heritage from the Jews, especially the Old Testament.
Focus Question How does the Jewish view of Christianity diverge from the Church’s? The Church sees Christ as not only a rabbi but also the promised Messiah and the Son of God made man. Extension: Jews consider belief in Christ as God heretical.
Focus Question What were some of the factors that influenced the teachings of Islam about Christianity? The Old Testament and the beliefs of Christians in Arabia at the time of Mohammed influenced Islam.
Focus Question How does the Koran see Christ? Christ is a great prophet who teaches the truths of monotheism and submission to God.
Focus Question How do Muslims see the Blessed Virgin Mary? She is given great importance in the Koran and considered the greatest of women. Shrines of Mary are holy places to Muslims.
Focus Question How is Muslims’ view of Christianity different from the Church’s? Islam views the Blessed Trinity to be irreconcilable with monotheism.
Focus Question Who is the greatest prophet in Islam? Mohammed is the great prophet.
Focus Question What do Jews and Muslims have in common in their view of Christianity? Both reject the central belief of Christianity; Christ is the Son of God, who gave the fullness of God’s Revelation to his people.
Focus Question Why do many Buddhist leaders see Christ in a positive way? They see Christ as a man of compassion who was illumined by divine truths. They see him as having achieved nirvana, thus liberating himself from the materialistic world and reaching a path of true happiness. Christ is an example for each person to
Focus Question How is the Buddhist view of Christ incompatible with Christianity? Buddhist beliefs imply a person can achieve “salvation” by his or her own efforts. In such a system, the role of a savior, and indeed that of God himself, is unnecessary. Extension: This is similar to the Gnostic idea of the
Focus Question Why is it difficult to say what Hinduism believes? Hinduism does not have a single creed but encompasses a myriad of beliefs and devotions to different gods and goddesses.
Focus Question How did Mahatma Gandhi view Christ? Christ is a martyr and a great teacher and example of morality and peace, one who illustrated with his own life the principle of nonviolence.
Focus Question What are some other Hindu views of Christ? Christ represents a great teacher of the spiritual life, one of the many incarnations of God, or a great prophet.
Focus Question What central truth about Christ is absent from the Hindu view of him? God became man not only to communicate the fullness of Revelation but also to die for sins.
Guided Exercise Compose and answer three Focus Questions about the passage from Gaudium et Spes 22 on pg. 183.
Focus Question How does Christianity see the material world? Genesis teaches the material world created by God is good and blessed by him. In addition, with the Incarnation of Christ and the establishment of the Sacraments, God uses his material Creation as the very means of salvation.
Focus Question What is the source of salvation according to Christianity? People cannot be liberated on their own. It is available through Christ’s Redemption.
Focus Question Who is Christ according to Christianity? Christ is God Incarnate, and only through him can a person achieve eternal salvation. He is much more than a good example to follow.
Graphic Organizer Complete the following table about different understandings of the Person of Christ. Religion Judaism Islam Buddhism Hinduism Area of Agreement with the Church Area of Disagreement with the Church