The behaviourist approach Classical and operant conditioning History

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The behaviourist approach Classical and operant conditioning

The behaviourist approach Classical and operant conditioning

History • Watson started the behaviourist movement in 1913 • • • when he

History • Watson started the behaviourist movement in 1913 • • • when he wrote an article which was called “Psychology as the behaviourist view” Skinner (1904 -1990) was also a very important theorist of the behaviourist learning. He experimented a lot on operant conditioning. The principles of operant conditioning were first investigated by Thorndike (1898). Pavlov was a physiologist interested on classical conditioning (dog salivation). He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1904.

Classical and operant conditioning • Classical conditioning is concerned with learning • by association

Classical and operant conditioning • Classical conditioning is concerned with learning • by association and refers to the conditioning of reflexes – how to learn to associate new stimuli with innate bodily reflexes. Operant conditioning involves learning through the consequences of behavioural responses. The principles of operant conditioning is trial and error learning, selective reinforcement and behaviour shaping

Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov • http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=hhqum fpxuz. I&feature=related • Office

Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov • http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=hhqum fpxuz. I&feature=related • Office • http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=n. E 8 p. F WP 5 QDM • Can you think of any more examples? • School? Life? At home?

Operant Conditioning • Learning happens due to what follows. The important part is what

Operant Conditioning • Learning happens due to what follows. The important part is what happens after one has done something. • Reinforcement and Punishment: Positive reinforcement: something positive will be added Negativ reinforcement: something negative will be removed Positive punishment: something negative will be added Negativ punishment: something positive will be removed • Can you think of any examples from School? Your upbringing? Sports? Other?

Skinners Box Food delivery opening Lever

Skinners Box Food delivery opening Lever

Operant conditioning I. Lever pressing Positive reinforcement Food is presented Lever pressing Punishment Electric

Operant conditioning I. Lever pressing Positive reinforcement Food is presented Lever pressing Punishment Electric shock is switched on Lever pressing Negative reinforcement Electric shock is switched off

Operant conditioning II. Positive reinforcers Strengthen behaviours which result in their presentation Punishers Weaken

Operant conditioning II. Positive reinforcers Strengthen behaviours which result in their presentation Punishers Weaken behaviours which result in their presentation Negative reinforcers Strenghten behaviours which result in their removal

Operant Conditioning • In Big Bang Theory: • http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=eu. INCr

Operant Conditioning • In Big Bang Theory: • http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=eu. INCr Dbb. D 4&feature=related