The Basics of HERMENEUTICS A LAYPERSONS INTRODUCTION TO

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The Basics of HERMENEUTICS A LAYPERSONS INTRODUCTION TO THE PRINCIPLES OF SOUND BIBLICAL INTERPRETATION

The Basics of HERMENEUTICS A LAYPERSONS INTRODUCTION TO THE PRINCIPLES OF SOUND BIBLICAL INTERPRETATION MODULES 1 - 3 BY GORDY CUCULLU

An Overview of this Course FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS COURSE OBJECTIVES: LEARN & DEVELOP COURSE

An Overview of this Course FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS COURSE OBJECTIVES: LEARN & DEVELOP COURSE OUTLINE WEEKLY ASSIGNMENTS RECOMMENDED TEXTS CREDITS & CITATIONS

Course Objectives: Classroom Learning 1. Learn the contemporary methods of hermeneutics. 2. Learn “where”

Course Objectives: Classroom Learning 1. Learn the contemporary methods of hermeneutics. 2. Learn “where” meaning resides. 3. Learn methods to minimize cultural and personal bias to more fruitfully study the Bible. 4. Learn to recognize the genres of the Bible

Frequently Asked Questions The Bible is the Word of God, but some of its

Frequently Asked Questions The Bible is the Word of God, but some of its hard to read— how do I make sense of what I’m reading? How can I improve the way I study a book of the Bible? How have Christians throughout history studied the Bible? What methods are used to study it now? Why this particular methodology? Two commentaries I have disagree, which is correct? Won’t the Holy Spirit just tell me what the text says? Do I have to know Greek, Hebrew or Aramaic to study the Bible?

Course Objectives: Self Development The skills that are taught can only be developed if

Course Objectives: Self Development The skills that are taught can only be developed if you practice them in the take home lessons included with this course! In addition to being fruitful studies in themselves, these assignments are designed to: 1. Develop the skills discussed in this program through practice. 2. Develop a methodology to your personal Bible study and meditation to maximize the transformation of your life as you give the Holy Spirit thoughtful truth with which to work.

Course Outline The following modules will be presented in summary Σ, part P, or

Course Outline The following modules will be presented in summary Σ, part P, or in full depending upon the length of time for the class. Module 1 -3 Modules 4 -6 Modules 7 -9 Modules 10 -12 Hermeneutics Intro Genre Σ: Historical Narrative Genre P: Epistle Genre Meaning, Context & Theme Gospel Genre Σ: Law/Prophecy Genre Σ: Apocalypse Genre Assignments Acts Genre P: Poetry, Psalms / Σ: Application & Wisdom & Proverbs the Role of the Holy Spirit Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5

Self Study Devotionals Assignment # Bible Study Assignment 1 Jude Create a Book Chart

Self Study Devotionals Assignment # Bible Study Assignment 1 Jude Create a Book Chart 2 Habakkuk Create a Book Chart 3 Matthew 28: 16 -20 Meditative Writing 4 Acts 4: 32 -37 Meditative Writing 5 Ephesians 1: 16 Meditative Writing • • • You should spend 1 -4 hours on devotionals Use as devotional time. The Bible is a key instrument that God uses for spiritual growth. If you don’t learn to study it well, your growth will be stunted. [Class: ask if the teacher is listening!]

Credits & Caveat The material presented in this program comes directly from an introductory

Credits & Caveat The material presented in this program comes directly from an introductory course on hermeneutics taught by Talbot professor Dr. Ben Shin. The general outline, written material and instruction are from his. Also strongly influenced by the assigned texts for that course, especially “Introduction to Biblical Interpretation, ” by Klein, Blomberg, and Hubbard. Additionally, many of the materials used in Dr. Shin’s class were produced by Dr. Walt Russell. Many of those materials appear in this lesson as well. Unless otherwise cited, all material originated from Dr. Shin or Dr. Russell and have been reproduced in this program with their permission. Other works will be cited at the end of each module. Caveat: Any error(s) in this material is due to my poor presentation, and not a reflection on Talbot, Dr. Shin, or Dr. Russell.

What is Hermenuetics M O D U L E # 1 HERMAN WHO? WHAT

What is Hermenuetics M O D U L E # 1 HERMAN WHO? WHAT IS HERMENEUTICS WHY IS IT INESCAPABLE? CLASS EXERCISE TRANSLATIONS OF THE BIBLE

What is Hermeneutics? Definition: the practice or discipline of interpretation. Hermeneuin (Greek) “to explain

What is Hermeneutics? Definition: the practice or discipline of interpretation. Hermeneuin (Greek) “to explain or interpret” From Greek Mythology: Hermes, the messenger or spokesperson of the gods. It is the process by which a reader determines the meaning of an author’s writing. It is related to exegesis. 1 Hermeneutics involves exegesis, but ends in application. 2

Why are Hermeneutics Important? Surprise, surprise—everyone already has a hermeneutical approach to Scripture. Is

Why are Hermeneutics Important? Surprise, surprise—everyone already has a hermeneutical approach to Scripture. Is it a good one? Most of us have bad reading habits and interpretative skills that need correcting and training. A good hermeneutic approach to scripture means that you are getting closer to and more fully receiving God’s message The Bible wasn’t written to me or you, though it was certainly written for you. The authors that wrote scripture often had a specific audience in mind (i. e. Paul’s letter to the Galatians, or Luke to Theophilus). Perspicuity of Scripture—scripture can be understood clearly, but it must be read correctly. Scripture must be understood in context of groups. It is not meant to be applied in our radically individualistic sense: (me+Bible+Holy Spirit = complete understanding)

A long, long time ago in a promised land far, far away, during the

A long, long time ago in a promised land far, far away, during the reign of the Roman EMPIRE

Our Old Bible They Wrote in a Different World. The Bible was written a

Our Old Bible They Wrote in a Different World. The Bible was written a long time ago by men who: Didn’t talk or write like us, Didn’t share the same view of the world as us. The used a language that had its own characteristics. Different words and grammar Different connotation. Different expectations in reporting Though these were people, they were different: Understanding of the world Governments Expectations of life So How Did They Read it?

Class Exercise: Why is it Necessary? Take a minute to describe what this sentence

Class Exercise: Why is it Necessary? Take a minute to describe what this sentence means, or could mean (as many as you can): Mary had a little lamb. Mary had a well behaved child A sheep named Mary gave birth Mother of Jesus Mary had some lamb chop Mary owned a lamb Mary used to own a lamb, but doesn’t now Mary has a porcelain animal collection including a lamb Mary conned a kid in the “Little Lambs” Sunday school class We don’t know what it means until we have more information! So if a line from a Nursery Rhyme could be vague, how much more difficult an ancient text!

How to Get to the Meaning? The first step to getting to meaning is

How to Get to the Meaning? The first step to getting to meaning is to understanding the bridges we have to the autographs These bridges are our modern translations.

The Spectrum of Bible Translations 1 Older FORMAL EQUIVALENCE (literal) Functional Equivalence (Dynamic) KJV

The Spectrum of Bible Translations 1 Older FORMAL EQUIVALENCE (literal) Functional Equivalence (Dynamic) KJV NIV NASB RSV NAB JB Free ‘Translation’ GNB NEB LB Phllips Newer NKJV NASU NRSV ESV TNIV REB NJB NLT THE MESSAGE Free Translation: Attempts to translate the ideas of the text in a modern manner. • Functional Equivalence: These try to represent the original language’s meaning in functional English. • • Formal Equivalence: Maintains the form of the original language’s words and grammar

Translation of the Translation TLA’s— (Three Letter Acronyms) Translation Acronym Title, Date Published Notes

Translation of the Translation TLA’s— (Three Letter Acronyms) Translation Acronym Title, Date Published Notes KJV King James Version, 1611 The authorized version has more recent printings. NKJV New King James Version, 1982 Updated version of the KJV NASB New American Standard Bible, 1960 NASU Updated New American Standard Bible, 1995 RSV Revised Standard Version, 1952 NRSV New Revised Standard Bible, 1991 ESV English Standard Version, 2001 NIV New International Version, 1984 TNIV Today’s New International Version, 2002 NAB New American Bible, 1970 REB Revised English Bible, 1989 NLT New Living Translation, 1997 JB Jerusalem Bible, 1966 NJB New Jerusalem Bible, 1985 GNB Good News Bible, 1976 NEB New English Bible, 1961 LB Living Bible, 1971 Based on the KJV, not the Greek Bible Phllips The New Testament in Modern English, 1967 Named for J. B. Phillips, the translator The Message 1993 + Eugene Peterson, trying to make Galatians relevant. 3 Updated version of the NASB Updated version of the RSV Updated version of the NIV (GNB 2, 1994), from Today’s English Version

COMING SOON! The SUUVNCRFOTNS Version The Super Ultra. Updated, Very New, Completely Readable, Formerly

COMING SOON! The SUUVNCRFOTNS Version The Super Ultra. Updated, Very New, Completely Readable, Formerly Orthodox, Transnational Standard Version 2 nd Edition Whew! er d, p u S te a e d h T a-Up , Ultr New y y l Ver plete Com dable, Rea erly m , For odox nal h o Ort snati n Tra dard sion n Ver tion Sta di nd E 2

Translation Methodology – Formal Equivalency or Literal The Emphasis is on the original language’s

Translation Methodology – Formal Equivalency or Literal The Emphasis is on the original language’s wording and word order. Maintains “historical distance” Useful for word studies within a Bible book. Difficult because they can be hard to read Idioms don’t always make sense It obfuscate a passage that was clear to the original reader Takes the reader as close to the original writing as possible in English. Preserves grammar & words sometimes at the cost of understanding. Remember “word for word”

Translation Methodology – Functional Equivalence Functional or Dynamic Equivalence The Emphasis is on finding

Translation Methodology – Functional Equivalence Functional or Dynamic Equivalence The Emphasis is on finding equivalent concepts in the translated language. Bridges the “historical distance” by re-arranging the words into typical, readable, English. Maintains “historical distance” on matters of fact and history, but updates style, grammar and word arrangement 2. Useful for comprehension and daily Bible study. Gives us some grammar for cultural/historical clarity. Remember: concept for concept.

Translation Methodology – Free Translation or Paraphrase The Emphasis is on simplicity and clarity

Translation Methodology – Free Translation or Paraphrase The Emphasis is on simplicity and clarity of the translated work over grammatical or language precision. Bridges the “historical distance” and drives the translation over the bridge. Useful for Hard to understand passages Modern application, Younger audiences and To stimulate understanding of a passage. Not useful for word study or to grasp the original meaning. Remember: simplicity & clarity instead of precision.

Summary of Module # 1 What is Hermeneutics? Translations of the Bible What is

Summary of Module # 1 What is Hermeneutics? Translations of the Bible What is Hermeneutics? pronounce: herm man new tix Hermeneutics is the process by which a reader determines the meaning of an author’s writing. Everyone has a hermeneutic, but to read the Bible well we need to develop a good hermeneutical approach. The Bible was written in a different Era, and we need to understand that era to better understand the Bible. Use more than one Bible translation (formal, functional, or free) to understand the meaning of a passage.

Module 1 Credits 1. 2. 3. 4. Adapted from both Fee & Stuart “How

Module 1 Credits 1. 2. 3. 4. Adapted from both Fee & Stuart “How to Read the Bible for All Its Worth, third edition, ” page 42 and a Walt Russell hand out. Fee, Gordon, and Douglas Stuart. “How to Read the Bible for All Its Worth, third edition, ”, Zondervan, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 2003, page 41. Bible Gateway, on the Message translation, can be found at: http: //www. biblegateway. com/versions/? action=get. Version. Info&vid=65. Herodotus Image: http: //z. about. com/d/ancienthistory/1/0/X/M/2/Herodotus. World. Map. jpg.

The Development of Modern Hermeneutics M O D U L E # 2 A

The Development of Modern Hermeneutics M O D U L E # 2 A BRIEF HISTORY OF HERMENEUTICS 7 PERIODS OF BIBLICAL INTERPRETATION 1 MODERN METHODS

7 Periods of Biblical Interpretation: Rabbinic 1. Rabbinic Period approximately 457 BC to 500

7 Periods of Biblical Interpretation: Rabbinic 1. Rabbinic Period approximately 457 BC to 500 AD Depended heavily on rabbinic tradition Interpreted Scripture literally- “plain sense” Associated with Hillel (8 AD) and Akiba (135 AD) Developed Practice of Midrash aim was to uncover deeper meanings Associated with geographical center of Jewish religious life. Works: Mishnah, Abot, Talmuds Halakah (Hebrew “rule to go by”) & Haggadah (“a telling”)1

7 Periods of Biblical Interpretation: Alexandrian 2. Alexandrian Period Approximately 180 B. C. to

7 Periods of Biblical Interpretation: Alexandrian 2. Alexandrian Period Approximately 180 B. C. to 400 A. D. Greek flavor Allegorical Method Associated with Philo Developed a 2 Fold Sense- body literal meanings soul (allegorical meanings) Works: Septuagint (LXX) Greek translation of Hebrew Scripture

7 Periods of Biblical Interpretation: Patristic The Patristic Period 95 A. D. to approximately

7 Periods of Biblical Interpretation: Patristic The Patristic Period 95 A. D. to approximately 1100 A. D. Typology/Allegory Associated with Clement, Origen Developed a 3 Fold Sense - Added the sense of moral meaning Works: Didache, Shepherd of Hermes Two Major Schools: Alexandria- allegorical Antioch- literal- Chrysostom

7 Periods of Biblical Interpretation: Scholastic 4. The Scholastic Period 1100 -1500 A. D.

7 Periods of Biblical Interpretation: Scholastic 4. The Scholastic Period 1100 -1500 A. D. Allegorical method Associated with Thomas Aquinas Human reason 4 Fold Sense literal meaning Added the sense of historical meaning Works: Summa Theologica

7 Periods of Biblical Interpretation: Reformation 5. Reformation 1500 -1600 AD Renewed interest in

7 Periods of Biblical Interpretation: Reformation 5. Reformation 1500 -1600 AD Renewed interest in Hebrew/Greek New Dimensionspiritual/Holy Spirit Martin Luther, John Calvin Development: Rejected the allegorical method One simple meaning (author’s intent)

7 Periods of Biblical Interpretation: Post Reformation 6. Post Reformation 1600 -1750 Pietism- sought

7 Periods of Biblical Interpretation: Post Reformation 6. Post Reformation 1600 -1750 Pietism- sought to cultivate prayer and personal morality England- John Wesley/U. S. - Jonathan Edwards Rationalism- human mind as supreme

7 Periods of Biblical Interpretation: Modern Era 7. Modern Era 1750 -present Neo-orthodoxy- Karl

7 Periods of Biblical Interpretation: Modern Era 7. Modern Era 1750 -present Neo-orthodoxy- Karl Barth/Rudolf Bultmann Existentialism Jesus of History/Christ of Faith

Graphic of the Hermeneutics History Literal Meaning & Deeper Meaning Modern Era Post Modernism

Graphic of the Hermeneutics History Literal Meaning & Deeper Meaning Modern Era Post Modernism Tradition & Literal Rejected meaning 1750 - present 457 BC – 500 AD Adopted Greekflavored practice 2 -Fold Sense Post Reformation 1600 - 1750 Literal & Allegorical 180 BC – 400 AD Patristic 3 -Fold Sense Added Typology 95 - 1100 Reformation Rejected Allegorical 1500 - 1600 Scholastic 4 -Fold Sense Added Historical 1100 - 1500

Summary of Module # 2 History of Hermeneutics The development of the four fold

Summary of Module # 2 History of Hermeneutics The development of the four fold sense of Scripture, and the eventual winnowing away of those four senses. Rabbinical understanding of Scripture was two-fold: tradition and literary. Alexandrian understanding was literal and allegorical. Patriarchs added a sense of moral meaning. Scholastics added historical meaning The reformers rejected all but literal meaning Neo Orthodoxy theologians seemingly rejected literal meaning altogether!

Module 2 Credits 1. 2. 3. 4. Image Clement Alexandria from: http: //commons. wikimedia.

Module 2 Credits 1. 2. 3. 4. Image Clement Alexandria from: http: //commons. wikimedia. org/wiki/File: Clemens. Von. Alexandrien. jpg. Martin Luther image by Lucas_Cranach_der_Ältere, from http: //commons. wikimedia. org/wiki/File: Martin_Luther_by_Lucas_Cranach_der_Ältere. jpeg Image of John Wesley preaching at his father’s grave. http: //2. bp. blogspot. com/_p. Mq. Na. WEUTt 8/SZQVLUWKg 6 I/AAAABw. E/W 928 Tr. SZvwg/s 400/John+Wesley+preaching+at+his+fa ther%27 s+grave. jpg

Meaning, Context, & the BIG Picture M O D U L E # 3

Meaning, Context, & the BIG Picture M O D U L E # 3 Author’s Intent What is Context? B I G Picture

Interpretive History Modern: Reader / Interpreters Classical: Author’s Intent s on iti os pp

Interpretive History Modern: Reader / Interpreters Classical: Author’s Intent s on iti os pp su Look no further, I’ll tell you what this text is about Pre Early 20 th Century: Text Alone Let me tell you what this means to me! !

Where does Meaning Reside? Classical Prior to the 20 th century, the meaning of

Where does Meaning Reside? Classical Prior to the 20 th century, the meaning of a text was discovered by focusing upon the intent of the author within their historical setting. Early 20 th Century The text was read without regard for the author and treated as if it had “a life of its own as an artifact. ” Late 20 th Century The reader gives the text its meaning! The reader, not the author was the creator of meaning in a text. What does it mean to you?

What is Context? Context is a unit of thought. In film, it is a

What is Context? Context is a unit of thought. In film, it is a single scene In literature it is a paragraph or pericope Context is like real estate. LOCATION, LOCATION For Reading the Bible, the chant is instead: CONTEXT, CONTEXT!

VIVA LA CONTEXT! Beautiful home for sale In a great location… kind of.

VIVA LA CONTEXT! Beautiful home for sale In a great location… kind of.

Context Example: Philippians 4: 13 “I can do all things through Christ who strengthens

Context Example: Philippians 4: 13 “I can do all things through Christ who strengthens me. ” Can I fly? Can I make the perfect omelette? Can I be president? Example: Jill tells me to me pick up “anything” at a Thai restaurant Get me anything. Context Philippians 4: 10 – 13 10 But I rejoiced in the Lord greatly, that now at last you have revived your concern for me; indeed, you were concerned before, but you lacked opportunity. 11 Not that I speak from want, for I have learned to be content in whatever circumstances I am. 12 I know how to get along with humble means, and I also know how to live in prosperity; in any and every circumstance I have learned the secret of being filled and going hungry, both of having abundance and suffering need. 13 I can do all things through Him who strengthens me.

Context Example: Philippians POOR Want Humble Going Hungry Suffering need (want) EXCESS Prosperity Being

Context Example: Philippians POOR Want Humble Going Hungry Suffering need (want) EXCESS Prosperity Being Filled Abundance (plenty) Context Philippians 4: 10 – 13 10 But I rejoiced in the Lord greatly, that now at last you have revived your concern for me; indeed, you were concerned before, but you lacked opportunity. 11 Not that I speak from want, for I have learned to be content in whatever circumstances I am. 12 I know how to get along with humble means, and I also know how to live in prosperity; in any and every circumstance I have learned the secret of being filled and going hungry, both of having abundance and suffering need. 13 I can do all things through Him who strengthens me. What then is Paul talking about? Living the Christian life in both plenty and want.

Big Picture When we read a book of the Bible, we need to keep

Big Picture When we read a book of the Bible, we need to keep the big picture in mind. We start with the big chunks and work our way down to the detail Worm & bird exercise

Directions to My House - 1

Directions to My House - 1

Directions to My House - 2

Directions to My House - 2

Directions to My House - 3

Directions to My House - 3

Top Down View Approach CHAPTERS C H A P T E R PARAGRAPHS PARAGRAPH

Top Down View Approach CHAPTERS C H A P T E R PARAGRAPHS PARAGRAPH VERSE word

Ways to Find the Theme of Book Blatant Method- Hebrews 8: 1 Outline Method

Ways to Find the Theme of Book Blatant Method- Hebrews 8: 1 Outline Method Acts 1: 8 - itinerary of the book Rev. 1: 19 - time elements of the book Frequency Method Philippians- joy? 16 times Suffer(ing)/Death/Loss- 23 times Bracketing Inclusio- “Sandwich Method” The two outside “sandwich” verses explain the “meat” verses in between. Mt 1: 23 “God with us” and Mt 28: 20 “I am always with you”

Summary of Module #3 Meaning Context Big Picture Themes Over the past century, meaning

Summary of Module #3 Meaning Context Big Picture Themes Over the past century, meaning in went from something intended by an author, to the text alone, to the reader. Meaning is found in the author’s intent. In order to understand a Bible verse, we must consider context, context! When reading a book of the Bible, we should always consider the BIG picture.

Recommended Reading & Resources Selected Handouts On Hermeneutics Walt Russell, “Playing with Fire” Fee

Recommended Reading & Resources Selected Handouts On Hermeneutics Walt Russell, “Playing with Fire” Fee & Stuart, “How to Read the Bible for All Its Worth” For Scripture Interpretation Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary Zondervan Bible Commentary, One-Volume Illustrated Edition, F. F. Bruce Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary by Arnold The IVP Bible Background Commentary (2 -books) NT by Craig S. Keener OT by John H. Walton, Victor Matthews, & Mark Chavalas Bibles Get a Parallel Bible if you can afford it. Biblegateway. com has access to multiple Bible versions. Additional recommended texts give as a handouts so that you can practice the devotional studies.