- Slides: 48
The Art of Questioning
Did you ever wonder why we ask questions? We ask questions if we want to find out something that is not known and even with the things we already have knowledge of. Even small kids ask questions out of curiosity, over the many amazing things they see and experience around them. .
Questions provide answers to our curios mind, things that need reasoning, things we do not understand, and discovery of something new. Questions make us reflect on the way we deal with life and promote a better understanding of why things happen the way it should be.
In the many aspect of life and in the various fields, we ask different types of questions. But as to what kind of questions we ask, probably a lot of us are not aware that we formulate our questions and the way we ask them fall into many different categories.
What do we mean by Questioning Techniques? Socrates: Teaching is the art of asking questions. Guy Claxton: Good learning starts with questions, not answers. Albert Einstein: In the middle of difficulty lies opportunity. The important thing is not to stop questioning.
What do we mean by Questioning Techniques? Most often we ask, what is the art of questioning? Is there such an art in asking questions? Can’t we not just ask? Is there a need for us to develop the what you call as questioning techniques?
What we have in mind as teachers, is that we question to know whether we were able to teach the skills that pertains to the topic/subject matter of our lessons.
Methods used from constructing and presenting questions in order to promote effective discussions and learning or to elicit information. The reasons why we should be adept in questioning techniques.
Why is there a need to know about Questioning Techniques? n n Interaction – the most common form of interaction between teachers and students. Challenge –provide motivation by encouraging students to actively participate in learning.
n n n Influence- can cause integration of skills. Progress- asking questions help teacher to promote the level of the students. Assessment –the teacher can assess the effectiveness of her teaching.
Purpose of Knowing and Using Questioning Techniques:
n n n To interest, engage and challenge pupils To check on prior knowledge and connect it to a new topic To stimulate, recall and use existing knowledge and experience in order to create new understanding and meaning
n n n To focus thinking on key concepts and issues To extend pupils’ thinking from the concrete and factual to the analytical and evaluative To lead pupils through a planned sequence which progressively establishes key understanding
n n To promote reasoning, problem solving, evaluation and the formulation of hypotheses To promote pupil’s learning about the way they have learned
What’s the purpose of asking questions in the following stages? Stages 1. 2. Purpose Warming – up-- ---- revising, recalling, motivating Presentation ---- eliciting
3. Practice ------- practicing the taught material 4. Production---- checking comprehension (wrap-up)
Types of Questions:
Wh -Questions n n n n Asking information about something Asking for a reason Asking about time Asking about place Asking about choice Asking what or which person or people Asking for ownership
Yes /No Questions A closed question can be answered with either a single word or a short phrase. A closed question can be answered with yes or no. They should be used with care –too many closed questions can caused frustration and shut down conversation.
Tag Questions: It is a statement followed by a miniquestion. The whole sentence is a “tag question, ” and the mini-question at the end is called a “question tag. ” Example: My mother is beautiful. Isn’t she?
Inference Questions: This is to assess the ability to go beyond what is in the page.
When a student asks a question: Clarify it, if necessary, help the student to answer the question himself, or ask other students to answer. Answer it yourself only as a last resort. But, never let a student’s question go unanswered.
What are the characteristics of a good question? A good question should be…. . n Short, thought provoking, properly directed n Unambiguous, relevant, related to the objectives n Clearly stated, straight forward, comprehensive, common vocabulary.
Effective Questioning should….
1. 2. 3. 4. Reinforce and promote the learning objectives Include “staging Questions” to draw pupils towards key understanding or to increase the level of challenge in a lesson as it proceeds. Involve all pupils Engage pupils in thinking for themselves.
5. Promote justification and reasoning. 6. Create an atmosphere of trust where pupils’ opinions and ideas are valued. 7. Show connections between previous and new learning. 8. Encourage pupils to speculate and hypothesize.
9. Encourage pupils to ask as well as to “receive” questions. 10. Encourage pupils to listen and respond to each other as well as to the teacher.
Pitfalls of Questioning:
1. 2. 3. 4. Asking many questions. Asking questions answerable with a simple yes or no answer. Asking too many short-answer, recall based questions. Asking “bogus, ” “What am I thinking” questions.
5. Starting all questions with the same stem 6. Focusing on a small number of pupils and not involving the whole class. 7. Making a sequence of questions too rigid 8. Not giving pupils time to reflect, or to pose their own questions
9. Dealing ineffectively with incorrect answer 10. Asking questions when another strategy might be more better.
How to Evaluate the kind of questions you make: Questions that can be answered wit “yes” or “no” are seldom worth asking. Bloom’s Taxonomy identifies knowledge, understanding and application as lower level skills, and analysis, synthesis, and evaluation as higher- level thinking still to which to aspire.
According to research, 80% of questions teachers ask are low-order questions that are literal-factually or knowledge-based.
Questions that test knowledge or comprehension are easy to assess, as they are either right or wrong. The next level is application, and it requires students to use knowledge they have gained to solve a problem.
Higher-order questions and answers, involve analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Because they are abstract, these questions and answers are subjective and therefore, more difficult to evaluate.
Educators often mention the importance of higher-order thinking and the media reports that children will need creative critical thinking skills to succeed. Many teachers concerned with higher-order thinking use Bloom’s Taxonomy to mold their lessons.
The Taxonomy consists of six levels; remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating and creating. The last three are considered higher-order thinking skills.
Examples for the HOT or higher-order-thinking skills: n n Venn Diagram- (analyzing)--- prompt the students to compare and contrast. Teachers can use them across all subject areas to promote analytical thinking. Cooperative Decision –Making(evaluating) Mock – Trials- (analyzing –evaluating) Engineering Challenges- (creating)
Kinds of Questions
n Closed Questions- a closed question can be answered with either a single word or a short phrase. Thus: “How are you? ” and “Where do you live? ” are closed. A closed question can be answered with either “Yes” or “No”.
Characteristics: They give you facts. They are easy to answer They keep control of the conversation with the questioner.
Chunking Questions Chunking down is getting more details by probing for more information. The goal is to find out more, fill in empty gaps in your picture, test the reality of the situation. You ask: How did you do that? Why did it happen?
Non-Leading Questions Avoid complex language-using big words that readers could not understand. Avoid Jargon- Jargon is helpful for people who specialize in the same subject as it allows them to talk in “shorthand”. It is sometimes useful but most of the time it annoys other people who think you are trying to look good and increase your status at their expense.
n n Double Bind Questions: which ever way you answer the result is the same. Echo Questions: repeat what they say as a question. Empowering Questions: that releases limits on people. Funnel Questions: seeking more details or more information.
n n Group Questions: questions given to many people at one time. Interrogative Questions: questions that lead to answers. Leading Questions: that may or may not be a good thing, you’re giving away the answer. Open Questions: required long and detailed answers.
n n Probing Questions: digging for more details. Prodding Questions: specific questions for finding details. Socratic Questioning: Socrates method of questioning to elicit learning. Tag questions: some questions encourage agreement, don’t they.
At the end, we have learned that: Good Questioning is a major determinant of the success of teaching.
Thank you so much I enjoyed being with you! Have a nice day! God bless us all! Ms. Ayette A. Munio