- Slides: 28
The Academic Argument
The Academic Argument Uses Persuasion To win over
An academic argument is a form of persuasion that uses logic.
Not Jedi Mind tricks
Procedures in Sound Arguments � 1. Clear definition � 2. Uses logic (logos) � 3. Uses facts � 4. Convincing tone (ethos) � 5. Minimizes emotional appeals (pathos).
Clear Definition: �Use a synonym �Use an example �Use a stipulative definition
Use a synonym Pornography = Obscenity
By synonym Pornography = Obscenity
Use an example Photographs of naked people found in Hustler, Playboy, Penthouse…
Did you really think I would include a picture?
Oh… All Right
Use a stipulative definition -- a set of necessary and sufficient criteria under which the item must fall. Sometimes useful to include what it’s not
Pornography: obscene pictures, writings, drawings, motion pictures, videos, or the like intended primarily to cause sexual arousal and having little or no artistic merit; also, the content of such materials. (Wordnik. com)
The Academic Argument Uses deductive and/or Inductive Reasoning
Deductive Reasoning We start with general principles and from these derive conclusions about particular cases.
Deductive Syllogism Socrates is a man All men are mortal Socrates is mortal
Problems in Deductive Reasoning For a syllogism to be sound: 1. All premises must be true. 2. The syllogism must be valid—the conclusion must necessarily follow from the premises.
Invalid Deductive Syllogism All crows are black—premise one (true) This bird is black—premise two (true) This bird is a crow—Conclusion (invalid)
Deductive Syllogism—you try it Dead men don’t move This man is not moving This man is dead
Deductive Syllogism All men have the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness Frederick Douglass, a slave, is a man Frederick Douglass has the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness
All men have the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness Women are not men They do not have the right to life liberty and the pursuit of happiness
Inductive Reasoning : from specific instances to general conclusions uses information about observed cases in order to reach a conclusion
a. Kinds of Evidence. Problems—Things to watch out for in inductive logic. Academic inductive reasoning usually rests on studies or statistics, in other words “controlled observations. ” i. Real Events ii. Invented instances (T. V. and written fiction for example) iii. Analogies iv. Statistics—what to watch out for Disinterested Source? Adequate Sample Recent data How many factors/possibilities were evaluated Are the statistics open to other interpretations
Real Events Problems: Small Sample—these tend to be interesting to read and make your essay more emotionally charged, but make sure the emotions are appropriate and as a reader and a writer be careful to consider numbers as well.