Terrestrial Biomes 1
Biomes- Community in a food web all adapted to particular abiotic conditions. So, the abiotic factors determine the biome! Major Terrestrial Biomes: • Tundra • Taiga • Temp Deciduous Forest • Tropical Grasslands • Temperate Grasslands • Tropical Rainforests • Chapparal • Desert
Abiotic factors determine biomes Terrestrial Biomes • Latitude- Earth/sun relationship; angle of rays; # daylight hrs • Global atmospheric circulation • Global ocean circulation • Coastal/Continental • Topography- Elevation
Biome Vegetation Temperature & Precipitation 4
Biome Vegetation, Latitude, and Altitude Latitude: Distance north or south of the equator measured in degrees Altitude: Height of an object above sea level 5
Terrestrial Biomes Map 6
Tundra • • • Northern Arctic Pole regions Long, cold winters Little precipitation Short growing season Treeless w/mosses, lichens, shrubs • Permafrost • Bogs in summer • Musk Oxen, Snowy Owls, arctic foxes, caribou, migratory birds, insects
Taiga Boreal Forest • Northern Europe, Asia and N. America • Largest biome • Cold w/long winters & high snowfall • Summers bring nearly constant daylight • Coniferous Forest • Moose, Bear, Wolves, • Snowshoe Hare
Temperate Deciduous Forest • North Eastern US, Western Europe, Eastern Asia • Extreme temp differences between winter & summer • 4 distinct seasons • Trees lose their leaves • Birch, beech, maple, oak • Deer, fox, coyote, chipmunks/squirrels
Tropical Grasslands (Savannas) • Central S. America, Central Africa, N. Australia, India • Wet & dry seasons, but warm year round • Scattered trees, grasses, shrubs • Giraffe, zebra, antelope, lions, hyenas • Plants w/vertical leaves, large horizontal roots, thorns
Temperate Grasslands (Prairies/Steppes) • Interior of N. America, S. America, Asia & Africa • Nutrient rich, fertile soils – Slow decay • Hot summers/cold winters • Moderate rain, but not enough to support trees • Tall & short grasses, flowers & herbs w/deep root systems – Drought & Fire • Antelope, bison, owls, prairie dogs & prairie chickens
Tropical Rain Forest • Around the Equator- SE Asia, C & S. America, Africa • Wet, Hot, & Humid • >200 -450 cm rain/year • Strong sunlight all year • Nutrient poor soils (fast decay) • >1/2 of worlds plant & animal species • Produce 40% of Earth’s oxygen and~1/4 of all medicines • Covers 7% Earths surface (used to be 20%)
Temperate Rain Forest • Pacific NW US (Wa), Central Europe, Australia, New Zealand • High Precipitation & Humidity; Moderate Temps (cool and moist) • Evergreen trees draped in lichens & mosses • Ferns • Frogs, bears, wolves, red pandas, wombats
Chaparral • West coastal regions of the Mediterranean, US, Chile, Africa, Australia • Temperate shrubland • Moisture and temps b/w grasslands and deserts – Dry, coastal climate, little/no rain in summer • Small shrubs w/leathery leaves (water) & oils (fire) – Herbs like Sage and Bay • Animals adapted to both – Quail, lizards, snakes
Deserts • The Americas, Asia Australia, & Africa • Precipitation (rain) less than 25 cm/year • Scattered vegetation & dry • Very hot days, cold nights • Plants & animals adapted for little moisture • Cacti (succulents) • Thorny devil, hawks, tortoise, camels
Terrestrial Biomes Self-Check 1. What is a biome? 2. What are the major terrestrial biomes? 3. What are the abiotic factors that dictate terrestrial biomes?
Terrestrial Biomes Self-Check Answers 1. What is a biome? Groups of ecosystems with organisms adapted to particular abiotic factors 2. What are the major terrestrial biomes? Tropical Rain Forests, Temperate Deciduous Forests, Taiga, Tropical Grassland, Temperate Grassland, Chaparral, Deserts, and Tundra 3. What are the abiotic factors that dictate terrestrial biomes? Latitude, global wind & ocean currents, proximity to water (coastal or inland), topography (elevation).
Terrestrial Biomes Self-Check 4. Which biome has more nutrient rich soil- Rain forests or grasslands? 5. What are epiphytes? 6. What two factors help determine the type of vegetation in an ecosystem? 7. How are tundra and desert biomes similar? 8. In which biome do plants tend to have the deepest root systems? 9. Describe two adaptations animals have to help them survive in their biome.
Terrestrial Biomes Self-Check Answers 4. Which biome has more nutrient rich soil- Rain forests or grasslands? Grasslands- slow decay returning nutrients to the soil 5. What are epiphytes? Plants that use the surface of a tree to grow. 6. What two factors help determine the type of vegetation in an ecosystem? Temperature & Precipitation 7. How are tundra and desert biomes similar? Low Precipitation 8. In which biome do plants tend to have the deepest root systems? Temperate Grasslands (Tall prairie grasses) 9. Describe two adaptations animals have to help them survive in their biome. Camouflage, nocturnal, thick skin, body armor, long necks & tongues
Terrestrial Biomes Self-Check 10. Describe two adaptations plants have to help them resist drought and fire. 11. Compare and contrast biomes and ecosystems. 12. As moisture decreases, what happens to vegetation in a biome? 13. What is the relationship between roots and erosion? 14. What is permafrost? How does permafrost contribute to the preservation of animals remains like mammoths?
Terrestrial Biomes Self-Check Answers 10. Describe two adaptations plants have to help them resist drought and fire. Thick, fleshy leaves, leathery leaves, waxy leaves and deep vertical roots, dense layers of roots, leaves with oils. 11. Compare and contrast biomes and ecosystems. Biomes are large regions characterized by particular climate, and types of plants and animals. An ecosystems is a particular community plus the abiotic factors. Ecosystems can be groups into biomes. 12. As moisture decreases, what happens to vegetation in a biome? Direct relationship- So, vegetation decreases as moisture decreases 13. What is the relationship between roots and erosion? Large roots/root systems hold the soil in place. 14. What is permafrost? How does permafrost contribute to the preservation of animals remains like mammoths? Permafrost is the layer of soil in the tundra that remains frozen. Cold temps and frozen ground of the tundra slows bacterial growth so organisms don’t decompose as quickly.