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Terms to know • Chromosome – contains genetic information (DNA) passed from one generation to the next • Spindle – microtubule that helps separate chromosomes A – Centromere: center of chromosome B – Chromatids: two identical “sister” parts of the chromosome
Cell Cycle 5 A: describe the stages of the cell cycle, including deocyribonucleic acid (DNA) replication and mitosis, and the importance of the cell cycle to the growth of organisms. Three main stages of the cell cycle: • Interphase: the cell grows, carries out cellular functions, and replicates its DNA. Longest phase. • Mitosis: the cell’s nucleus and nuclear material divide; includes four sub-stages. • Cytokinesis: cell’s cytoplasm divides, creating two new cells.
Review: Interphase • Discuss with your partner the main points of each part of Interphase: • Gap 1 • Gap 0 • S-phase (synthesis) • Gap 2
On your white board, draw what happens during S phase of interphase
Mitosis Reasons why cells divide through Mitosis: 4 chromosomes in the cell (46 in humans) -Repair / Replace old or damaged cells 8 chromosomes in the cell (92 in humans) -Growth of the organism 4 chromosomes in the cell (46 in humans) https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=gwcw. SZIf. Kl. M&index=2&list=PL 3 Tg 4 m. Erz. FVdf. Cb. Yn. Dfb k-xjez. Wk. Xcqb 6
Phases of Mitosis 4 Phases: (PMAT) Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase
Prophase (P for Primary) • 1 st phase of mitosis • Chromatin condenses into chromosomes (chromosomes become visible) • Nuclear envelope/membrane disappears • Centrioles migrate to poles • Spindles are formed
On your white board, write the 4 processes that occur during prophase.
Metaphase (M for Middle) • 2 nd phase of mitosis • Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell • Each chromosome is attached to spindles
On your white board, draw metaphase. Be sure to label the chromosomes and spindle fibers
Anaphase (A for Away) • 3 rd phase of mitosis • Chromosomes are pulled apart by their centromeres • Chromatids are pulled to opposite poles
On your white board, draw AND explain anaphase. Be sure to label the chromosomes, centromeres and spindle fibers.
Telophase (T for two nuclei) • Final phase of mitosis • Begins when chromatids reach poles • Two new nuclei start to form • Chromosomes start to unwind • Spindles disappear • Cytoplasm begins to divide; cell plate forms
Cytokinesis (not a part of mitosis) The end of M-Phase (M-phase = Mitosis + Cytokinesis) • Cytoplasm pinches completely in half. Animal Cell • Each daughter cell has an identical set of chromosomes Plant Cell
On your white board, draw telophase and cytokinesis. Write the differences between the two.
4 phases that blend from one to another.
acronyms • Mitosis only • Passed (prophase) • My (metaphase) • Algebra (anaphase) • Test (telophase) • All cell cycle • I (interphase) • Passed (prophase) • My (metaphase) • Algebra (anaphase) • Test (telophase) • Corrections (cytokinesis)
Interphase Anaphase Prophase Telophase Metaphase Cytokinesis
Complete your exit ticket.