Tell me about the Spanish-American War….
Awake United States! Eagle soar on high, and sound the battle cry! How proudly sailed the warship Maine, a Nation’s pride, without a stain! A wreck she lies, her sailors slain. By two-faced butchers, paid by Spain! Eagle soar on high, And sound the battle cry Wave the starry flag! In mud it shall not drag!
Background on Cuba was colonized by Spain - think 1492 By 19 th century, only Cuba and PR still Spanish colonies 1868 -1878 Cuban insurrection – Cuban rebels fight for independence February 24, 1895 another insurrection led by Jose Marti 1896 – General Weyler (Spanish) Reconcentration & military rule
What does the USA have to do with this? U. S. had business interests in Cuba-$50 million mining & sugar to “protect” American business interests & Cuban property Hit and run guerilla attacks on state property during fighting (hurt economy) US sympathetic with rebels Rebels placed in jail, some Americans News papers run stories about rebels (NYJ) "Death of Rodríguez“ – firing squad Remember the penny press? ? ? Yellow Journalism - Sensationalist news… (more on that later)
Here Comes President Mc. Kinley takes office 1897: “independent Cuba, annex Hawaii, Panama Canal” ▪ What does this tell us? ? Jan 25, 1898 USS Maine goes to Havana So, why did we send an American battle ship to Cuba? ?
"Worst Insult to the United States in its History. " De Lome letter (published Feb 9, 1898) Written by De. Lome, Spanish Ambassador to the US (sent to Foreign Minister of Spain Intercepted by rebels and published by Hearst Press, NY Journal "weak and catering to the rabble and, besides, a low politician who desires to leave a door open to himself and to stand well with the jingos of his party. "
And then…. Feb 15, 1898 Maine explodes lose 260 men
What happened? ? ? What will happen next? ? ?
New York Journal DESTRUCTION OF THE WAR SHIP MAINE WAS THE WORK OF AN ENEMY Assistant Secretary Roosevelt Convinced the Explosion of the War Ship Was Not an Accident. The Journal Offers $50, 000 Reward for the Conviction of the Criminals Who Sent 258 American Sailors to Their Death. Naval Officers Unanimous That the Ship Was Destroyed on Purpose.
New York Times MAINE’S HULL WILL DECIDE Divers to Find Whether the Force of the Explosion Was from the Exterior or Interior. SHE WAS AFLOAT FOR AN HOUR Spontaneous Combustion in Coal Bunkers a Frequent Peril to the Magazines of Warships – Hard to Blow Up the Magazine. NAVAL OFFICERS THINK THE MAINE WAS DESTROYED BY A SPANISH MINE.
The first “media” war Yellow journalism Sensationalized, exaggerated and sometimes even manufactured (made up) stories New York Journal & New York World http: //www. authentichistory. com/1898 -1913/4 -imperialism/2 -saw/1 prelude/18980000_Uncle_Sam_Tell_Us_Why_Are_You_Waiting. George_J_Gaskin. html
Why do these articles matter?
A month after the Maine Explosion, Mc. Kinley declares: Cuba independent & demands a complete withdraw of Spanish troops (Teller Amendment) Called for unconditional compliance from Spain by April 23 Denies any desire by USA to keep Cuba April 22 nd Mc. Kinley blockades Cuba’s coastline If you were Spain what would you do?
Spain Declares War on April 25, 1898 Would you have declared war on the USA too?
The Spanish-American War Begins…. Any predictions? http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=urtm 4 Gpj. Fu 4
USA Not Prepared for War Decreased army after Civil War regulars Mobilization Act US afraid attack on Florida & - 26, 000 West Coast
The War Begins, but not in Cuba! May 1 - take Philippines within 6 hours Commodore Dewey takes Manila Bay (water) without losing a man! Emilio Aguinaldo returns and leads land victory Filipino freedom fighter Declares independent Philippines on June 12 August American army captures Manila (Upset Filipinos and later leads to war with the Philippines) Commodore Dewey captures Manila Bay without losing a man
The Pacific War Continues… Early June take Guam & the Spanish do not realize! Captain Henry Glass on his way to Manila stops in Guam June 20 – handed over by Spanish Governor ▪ http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=n 4 h 8 kq. RE 29 s
Moving to the Caribbean Fighting begins in Cuba June 20, 1898 17, 000 American troops to Santiago July 1 - 8, 000 storm - Kettle Hill then San Juan Hill – Santiago falls Rough Riders, led by Teddy ▪ Cowboys, Indians, Wild West types, Ivy League athletes and sportsmen http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Fhk. CWpb. Zy. JU Buffalo Soldiers (9 th/10 th cavalries)
Lt. Colonel Theodore Roosevelt "We disembarked with our rifles, our ammunition belts, and not much else, " he remembered. "I carried some food in my pocket, and a light coat which was my sole camp equipment for the next three days. “
It is just about over… July 3 - Destroy Spanish Fleet – Santiago Bay Spanish flee Cuba July 25 , Gen’l Nelson Miles to Puerto Rico 3, 300 soldiers
The “Splendid Little War” Comes to An End Aug 12, 1898 cease fire A four month war! 274, 000 served – under 2, 456 died 385 killed in action, rest died of disease & food poisoning!
How would you describe the Spanish -American war? Why did Spain fall so easily? ?
“War should never be entered upon until every agency of peace has failed” Guess who said this? Do you agree? Did we wait until “every agency” was exhausted before entering into the Spanish-American War?
Treaty of Paris Independence to Cuba – Teller Amendment Puerto Rico Guam Philippines purchased for $20 million By 1903 Teller revised - Platt Amendment: naval bases, intervene, limit foreign interaction
"Our Terms, " Judge, 1898, by Eugene Zimmerman Explain the title What is the author’s message? Give 3 specific citations from the text and images
Anti-Imperialists Emerge June 15, 1898: Anti-Imperialist League Specific focus annexation Philippines Why? Economic, racial, moral to legal reasons Notable members: Andrew Carnegie Mark Twain Samuel Gompers
http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=n. HLz. Cgf q. JK 8 http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=7 x. KCH 86 n 2 a. Y&feature=relmfu