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Team Garlic Armageddon Final Presentation Kirstyn Johnson, Ryder Whitmire, Lenny Komow Lauren Persons, Dave Borncamp, Jon Pfohl December 1, 2009 Rev 11 -19 -09
Mission Overview Mission Statement - Analyze affect of radiation and atmosphere on growth rate of bacteria Mission Objectives Expose bacteria radiation Determine amount of radiation the bacteria is exposed to Determine how bacteria is impacted by radiation Mission Expectations - Bacterial recovery rates = low compared to control - Radiation Background - Why E. coli? - - Easily accessible, anaerobic Implications: Radiation effect on humans as space travel becomes more common
Functional Block Diagram
Balloon. Sat Function All systems on before launch Stores data for all inputs (temperature, pressure, accelerations, and geiger counter) every 60 ms Radiation counts from Geiger counter were added up and stored in memory every 60 ms Camera took picture every 20 seconds
Changes in Satellite Design and Experiment Proposal Final Measure radiation and other atmospheric conditions (i. e. temperature) Measured radiation Fly two plates inoculated with bacteria Flew one plate inoculated with bacteria and a pressure tube with bacteria in nutrient broth One testing method for bacteria: replica plating Two testing methods: replica plating and spectrophotometric analysis Satellite design: part of satellite would not have been protected by insulation All of the satellite was heated with insulation on all parts
Results and Analysis
Bacteria: Predicted • Replica Plating –Smaller colony size and obliteration of certain colonies in experimental plate • Spectrophotometry –Growth curve of experimental sample shifted to the right, i. e. longer to obtain the same ABS value
Bacteria: Replica Plating Analysis Result: the original plate of the control group showed the expected growth of E. coli, and its replica showed a similar, but to a lesser degree, amount of growth. Unexpected Result: during the replication and incubation process, contamination had occurred, as the replica plate had a large number of foreign cultures growing in it; did not seem to affect the results Conclusion: all of the E. coli transferred to the replica plate was killed due to radiation
Bacteria: Spectrophotometric Analysis Result: the density of the bacteria that was in the satellite took a longer time to replicate, but only took about 31 hours to catch up to the control bacteria
Temperature Analysis: HOBO External Result: when the flight began, the temperature steadily dropped from about 10°C to around -60°C; the satellite was in the troposphere, the lowest level of Earth’s atmosphere -between 30 and 50 minutes after activation, most likely in the part of the atmosphere known as the tropopause -warming trend continues through the stratosphere, shown in the graph roughly between 50 and 90 minutes
Temperature Analysis: HOBO Internal -Shows the same general trend as the AVR temperature data, but slightly different temperature values -lowest temperature was at about -10°C, not low enough to kill bacteria
Temperature Analysis: AVR -gave a minimum temperature of -11. 4°C -temperature not low enough to freeze the water in the pressure tube, conclude that temperature was a little factor in hindering bacterial growth
Radiation: Predicted As the altitude increases, expect to see the radiation intensity increase; a positive correlation between altitude and intensity
Radiation Analysis -As time increases, radiation intensity (counts/min) also increases -Radiation at apogee (≈95, 000 ft) was about 60 times greater than at 5, 400 ft. above seal level (Boulder elevation)
Humidity Analysis • First spike in graph correlates with spike in temp. sensor –payload was launched. • Second spike in humidity also correlates with second spike in the temp. graph –Satellite in the stratosphere, the peak representing balloon burst. • Humidity steadily increasing at end since temperature is rising –Later in the day
Accelerometer Analysis The acceleration was roughly constant, but spiked at launch and increased significantly at burst.
The acceleration in the Y axis was negative for the ascent because the satellite spun the entire time. After burst, the acceleration was closer to zero because the satellite was not spinning.
Failure Analysis Failure of Pressure Sensor Initial data not consistent with what pressure should be at ground. We took it to the electronics center to test in a pressure environment to repeat the failure. We recorded a constant pressure regardless of the change in the environment.
Pressure Data: Before Flight
Picture Analysis All Systems On Satellite Launch Time Stamp- 12: 00: 53 am Time Stamp- 12: 09: 52 am
Picture Analysis (cont’d) Burst of Balloon Time Stamp- 1: 36: 00 am Satellite Landing Time Stamp- 2: 10: 22 am All of the time stamps correlate with accelerometer and temperature data, confirms what time the events occurred
Conclusions • The amount of penetrating radiation present at 95, 000 feet is almost sixty times greater than at 5, 400 feet above sea level (the elevation of Boulder, CO). • The radiation present was of sufficient potency to kill off a large portion of the bacteria, evidenced by the annihilation of E. coli colonies on the replica plate, but not enough to completely kill and sterilize the entire satellite, as seen in the pressure tube experiment • Despite the amount of radiation damage incurred, the bacteria was still able to recover after about 31 hrs
Lessons Learned Spectrophotometric analysis of bacterial growth is superior to replica plating technique More effective to do multiple pressure tubes for spectrophotometric analysis Need to ensure that the bacteria stays warmer, make sure there are no other confounding variables
Ready to Fly Again • Payload should be stored in a cool environment not exposed to excessive light • Bacteria cultures must be grown a day before flight • A spectrophotometer must be acquired before flight for use on the ground • Electronics can be activated by flipping the power switch followed by the G-switch right before launch • Need to ensure that Geiger counter still works properly • Will need to correct problems with the pressure sensor
General Mission Requirements Matrix Requirements Done? 1. Aditional experiment that collects science data, analyzable Yes 2. Analog Sensor input shall not exceed 5 V Yes 3. After Flight, balloonsat will be ready to fly again Yes 4. Flight string interface tube is non metal, through center of balloonsat and secured to box so that it won’t interfere with flight string Yes 5. Internal temperature of balloonsat will remain above -10 degrees C during flight Yes 6. Total weight shall not exceed 850 grams Yes 7. Team shall acquire ascent and descent rates of the flight string Yes 8. Design shall allow for a HOBO H 08 -004 -02 Yes 9. Design shall allow for external temperature cable Yes 10. Design shall allow for a Canon A 570 IS Digital Camera Yes 11. Design shall allow for AVR microcontroller board and batteries weighing 150 grams including batteries Yes 12. Design shall allow for an active heater system weighing 100 grams with batteries Yes 13. Balloonsat shall be made of foam core Yes 14. Parts list and budget shall include spare parts Yes 15. Balloonsat shall have contact information written on the outside along with a US flag Yes 16. Proposal, design, and other documentation units shall be in metric Yes
Requirements (cont’d) Requirements Done? 17. Launch is November 7 th 2009, 6: 50 AM in Windsor, CO. Everyone is expected to show for Launch. Only one team member is required to participate in recovery. Launch and recovery shall be completed by 3: 00 PM Yes 18. No one shall get hurt Yes 19. All hardware is the property of the Gateway to Space program and must be returned in working order at the end of the semester Yes 20. All parts shall be ordered and paid by Chris Koehler’s CU Master. Card by appointment to minimize reimbursement paperwork. All teams shall keep detailed budgets on every purchase and receipt shall be turned in within 48 hours of purchase with team name written on it along with a copy of the Gateway order form Yes 21. All purchases made by team individuals shall have receipts and must be submitted within 60 days of purchase or reimbursement will be subject to income taxes Yes 22. Have fun and be creative Yes 23. Absolutely nothing alive will be permitted as payloads, with the exception of yellow jackets, mosquitoes, fire ants, earwigs, roaches, or anything you would squish if you found it in your bed Yes 24. Completion of the final report (extra credit if team video is included) Yes
Message to Next Semester This class is going to be a lot of work, but very rewarding. If you are looking for a class where you can make something without having to put much effort into it, then you should look somewhere else. For every hour you spend working on your satellite it’s a safe bet that you will be spending at least two more writing about it. This class involves a lot of writing. It’s not busy work, though, as it thoroughly prepares you for real life presentations and proposals. You are going to have to know your stuff and be prepared for all sorts of problems along the way. Though Chris says it every day, Time is not on your side! Try to finish everything at least a week before flight, so you have time to run at least two or three full length flight simulations. Testing everything is crucial. On the other hand, you will have a blast. Chris is an amazing teacher, and will make you love every class. Groups can sometimes be tough to work with, but if you work at it, you can make great friends. If you do have group problems, try to work it out As Soon As Possible! Having one poor worker in the group can drag the rest of the group’s morale down too. At the same time, you all can have a lot of fun together. Launch day will be unforgettable. There’s nothing like seeing the satellite you worked so hard on soar through the sky, to disappear behind the clouds. A few tips on that note: use anti-fog on the lens of your camera, and for goodness sakes, don’t forget to turn your AVR board on! As a final note, try to pick something that you know you will have fun working on. If you are willing to work hard for a great reward, then Gateway to Space is right for you!