- Slides: 8
TAXONOMY Unit 1 – Diversity of Living Things
HOW DO WE ORGANIZE LIVING THINGS? p We name all organisms using many names: s n n n n K ingdom P hylum C lass O rder F amily G enus S pecies Each level is p King e c Phillip i Cried f i Out c “For Goodness Sakes!” called a “taxon”
SIX KINGDOMS Unicellular single-cell p Multicellular many cells p Prokaryotic no nucleus present in cells p Eukaryotic nucleus present in cells p p Each kingdom has many phyla n Each phylum has many classes p Each class has many orders § Etc.
TAXONOMY Taxonomy system of naming organisms p Carl Linnaeus p n n p Scientific name of any animal: Genus species Written in italics n “Genus” is capitalized Names are Latin/Greek n p Swedish botanist and ecologist Designed binomial nomenclature binomial = two-name nomenclature = system Carl Linnaeus Homo sapien
CLADOGRAMS p Cladogram the family tree for all living things that describes phylogenetic (evolutionary) relationships p How do we figure out how organisms are related? n p Look for homologies (common characteristics)! Dichotomous keys: n Classifying based on presence/absence of traits (yes/no questions)
DINOSAUR CLADOGRAM Common ancestors areat the base, and branches are evolutionary “families” with common traits
RECAP: TAXONOMY KEY WORDS p p p p p Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species Taxon (plural: taxa) Unicellular, multicellular Prokaryotic, eukaryotic Taxonomy Binomial nomenclature Cladogram Phylogeny / phylogenetic Homology / homologies / homologous Dichotomous key