Tall Buildings Presented to Minnesota Futurists Technology Special

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Tall Buildings Presented to Minnesota Futurists Technology Special Interest Group Hank Lederer and David

Tall Buildings Presented to Minnesota Futurists Technology Special Interest Group Hank Lederer and David Keenan 17 November 2007

Pyramids - Giza Completed ~ 2570 BC • 481 ft (147 m) orig •

Pyramids - Giza Completed ~ 2570 BC • 481 ft (147 m) orig • Worlds Tallest for 3, 800 years • Tomb of Pharaoh

Leaning Tower – Pisa, Italy Completed 1350 177 years in construction started in 1173

Leaning Tower – Pisa, Italy Completed 1350 177 years in construction started in 1173 • 183 ft (56 m) • slants 5. 5 degrees

Two Towers – Bologna, Italy Two Towers, both leaning, are the symbol of the

Two Towers – Bologna, Italy Two Towers, both leaning, are the symbol of the city Asinelli Tower – 319 ft (97 m) Garisenda Tower originally ~ 197 ft (60 m) today - 157 ft(48 m) Bologna may have had up to 180 towers btw 12 th and 13 th century

Eiffel Tower - Paris Completed 1889 • 1063 ft (324 m) • Worlds Tallest

Eiffel Tower - Paris Completed 1889 • 1063 ft (324 m) • Worlds Tallest Structure, surpassing Washington Monument, until 1930, Chrysler Bldg

40 Wall St. vs. Chrysler < 40 Wall St. Completed 1930 • 927 ft

40 Wall St. vs. Chrysler < 40 Wall St. Completed 1930 • 927 ft (283 m) spire • 70 floors • world's tallest building from April 1930 to May 27, 1930 Chrysler Building > Completed 1930 • 925 ft (282 m) roof • 1047 ft (319 m) spire • 77 floors • world's tallest building from 27 May 1930 to 1931 (surpassed by Empire State) http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/40_Wall_Street http: // en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Chrysler_building

Empire State Building – New York Completed 1931 • 1, 250 ft (381 m)

Empire State Building – New York Completed 1931 • 1, 250 ft (381 m) roof • 1, 472 ft (449 m) spire • 102 floors • Worlds Tallest Building for 41 years • Surpassed by WTC 1 in 1972 • Mythbusters tested the urban myth "If you drop a penny off the top of the Empire State Building will it kill someone or crater the sidewalk? " By the time the penny hit the ground it is going roughly 65 mph, which is NOT fast enough to inflict lethal injury or put a crater into the sidewalk.

Local Favorites

Local Favorites

IDS and Foshay - Minneapolis IDS completed 1974 > • 792 ft (214 m)

IDS and Foshay - Minneapolis IDS completed 1974 > • 792 ft (214 m) roof • 910 ft (277 m) spires • 57 floors • surpassed Foshay in ‘ 72 • Foshay completed 1929 > • 447 ft (136 m) roof • 607 ft (185 m) spire • 32 floors • MN tallest 1929 -1972 • “First Skyscraper West of the Mississippi”

Current Placeholders

Current Placeholders

Worlds Tallest Buildings

Worlds Tallest Buildings

Sears Tower - Chicago Completed 1973 • 1, 450 ft (442 m) roof •

Sears Tower - Chicago Completed 1973 • 1, 450 ft (442 m) roof • 1, 730 ft (527 m) spires • Taller than World Trade Center • 110 floors (like WTC) • 104 elevators (16 dbldeck)

Petronas Towers – Kuala Lumpur Completed • 88 floors - world's tallest buildings from

Petronas Towers – Kuala Lumpur Completed • 88 floors - world's tallest buildings from 1998 to 2004 • 1999 movie Entrapment - Catherine Zeta-Jones, Sean Connery http: //www. allaboutskyscrapers. com/skyscraper_concrete_foundations. html

Taipei 101 - China Completed 2004 • Tallest til 21 Jul 07 • 1,

Taipei 101 - China Completed 2004 • Tallest til 21 Jul 07 • 1, 670 ft ( 509 m) • 101 floors • 61 (including 2 doubledecker) elevators • Fastest elevator ascend 38 mph • $1. 76 B cost • Tuned mass damper vs. sway

CN Tower - Canada Completed 1976 • Toronto, Ontario • Broadcast Tower • 1815

CN Tower - Canada Completed 1976 • Toronto, Ontario • Broadcast Tower • 1815 ft (553 m) • "the world's tallest free-standing tower"

Unusual Buildings

Unusual Buildings

Swiss Re, 30 St. Mary Axe - London Completed 2004 • 590 ft •

Swiss Re, 30 St. Mary Axe - London Completed 2004 • 590 ft • the ‘gherkin’

Turning Torso – Mälmo, Sweden Completed

Turning Torso – Mälmo, Sweden Completed

Twin Towers - Kuwait Completed • Water towers with Observation and Restaurant decks

Twin Towers - Kuwait Completed • Water towers with Observation and Restaurant decks

Park Towers - Dubai Both towers are 30 floors, and offer approximately 432 exquisitely

Park Towers - Dubai Both towers are 30 floors, and offer approximately 432 exquisitely designed one, two and three bedroom apartments. The design of the towers was inspired by the evolution of Dubai, and the undulating soft forms of the desert. Designed by Gensler, the award-winning architects for the new London Stock Exchange headquarters. The intelligent design of the towers ensures that every apartment has a wide balcony offering you the freedom to relax and enjoy the stunning views of the financial district, with its parks, cafés and entertainment facilities. http: //www. homesgofast. com/dubai/property_Park_Towers_Damac. php

‘Sporefloater’ - Singapore Under construction • This “suspended” tower is going to be built

‘Sporefloater’ - Singapore Under construction • This “suspended” tower is going to be built in Singapore. The basic idea is to reduce the amount of space used at the ground level! • 502 ft(153 m) • 36 floors http: //smriti. com/blogs/2007/03

Burj al arab - Dubai Completed 1999 • 689 ft (210 m) roof •

Burj al arab - Dubai Completed 1999 • 689 ft (210 m) roof • 1, 053 ft (321 m) spire • 60 floors • Sky tennis anyone?

EDi. TT Tower - Singapore Under construction • Ecological Design in The Tropics •

EDi. TT Tower - Singapore Under construction • Ecological Design in The Tropics • Very Green • 26 floors

Phare Tower - Paris Proposed Green design 984 ft (300 m) tall Artist rendition

Phare Tower - Paris Proposed Green design 984 ft (300 m) tall Artist rendition shows the future skyscraper 'Phare', or Lighthouse, due to be completed in 2012 in Paris

Dancing Towers - Dubai Proposed For completion 2009 65 floors Zaha Hadid’s design for

Dancing Towers - Dubai Proposed For completion 2009 65 floors Zaha Hadid’s design for the Dancing Towers confirms the role of Business Bay Development at the very forefront of Dubai’s rapidly changing future. The three towers rise above the creek and project themselves as an icon for the surrounding developments and for the gulf region. Designer: Zaha Hadid http: //www. yankodesign. com/index. php/2007/04/19/dancingtowers-by-zaha-hadid/

Burj al-Taq Tower in Dubai Proposed? Energy Tower Cylindrical shape is designed to expose

Burj al-Taq Tower in Dubai Proposed? Energy Tower Cylindrical shape is designed to expose as little surface area to the sun as possible. A protective solar shield reaches from the ground to the roof, covering 60 deg of the giant circular building. So green. Form of a twisted highball glass topped by a twirling cocktail stick of a wind turbine. http: //www. metaefficient. com/archives/architecture-and-building/rating_the_green_hypereliteness_of_ecotowers. html

Dubai Towers - Dubai Proposed ? • 788 to 1, 312 ft (240 to

Dubai Towers - Dubai Proposed ? • 788 to 1, 312 ft (240 to 400 m) • Ranging between 57– 94 floors • estimated completion is mid 2010 • The Lagoons’ is a mixed-use freehold development being built along the Dubai Creek coastline. The US$ 18 bil project will cover an area of 70 million square feet over 40 km of waterfront land.

Siam Tribute - Thailand

Siam Tribute - Thailand

Under Construction

Under Construction

Shanghai World Financial Center Nearing completion Topped out 14 Sep 07 Latest shot 03

Shanghai World Financial Center Nearing completion Topped out 14 Sep 07 Latest shot 03 Nov 07 >> • 1, 614 ft (492 m) roof • 101 floors • 31 elevators

Freedom Tower – New York Under construction For completion 9/11/10 World Trade Center site

Freedom Tower – New York Under construction For completion 9/11/10 World Trade Center site 1776 ft 108 floors

Moscow City Tower - Moscow Under construction since 18 Sept, 2007 • 2, 007

Moscow City Tower - Moscow Under construction since 18 Sept, 2007 • 2, 007 ft (612 m ) • 118 floors • 101 elevators • $1. 5 -$1. 7 B • taller than any other building in Europe • planned for 2012 • part of $12 B Moscow International Business Center project (10 buildings)

Towers - Chicago

Towers - Chicago

Chicago Spire Under construction Formerly Fordham Spire • started 25 July, 2007 • planned

Chicago Spire Under construction Formerly Fordham Spire • started 25 July, 2007 • planned for 2011 • 2, 000 ft (610 m) roof • 150 floors http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Fordham_Spire

Tall Buildings New design

Tall Buildings New design

Burj - Dubai Under construction since 2004 For completion 2008 • ~ 2, 111

Burj - Dubai Under construction since 2004 For completion 2008 • ~ 2, 111 ft (643 m) roof • ~ 2, 684 ft (818 m) spire • 164 floors • 12 Sept 07 surpassed CN Tower and still climbing

Burj - Dubai Under construction

Burj - Dubai Under construction

Proposed

Proposed

Supertowers - Dubai

Supertowers - Dubai

Al Burj - Comparison Al Burj Dubai Taipei Empire Eiffel St. Mary 101 State

Al Burj - Comparison Al Burj Dubai Taipei Empire Eiffel St. Mary 101 State Tower Axe 3900 ft+ 2600 ft+ 1671 ft 1454 ft 984 ft 590 ft

Al burj - Dubai Proposed • 2, 789 ft (850 m) roof • 3,

Al burj - Dubai Proposed • 2, 789 ft (850 m) roof • 3, 445 ft (1, 050 m) spire • 228 floors

Burj Mubarak al-Kabir - Kuwait Proposed • • 2, 953 ft (900 m) roof

Burj Mubarak al-Kabir - Kuwait Proposed • • 2, 953 ft (900 m) roof 3, 284 ft (1, 001 m) spire 254 floors (est) 2008 proposed start, 2012 end Could require triple deck elevators Housing for 700, 000 Madinat al-Hareer (City of Silk Project)

Sky City – Tokyo, Japan Proposed • 1000 m (3, 281 ft) • Triple

Sky City – Tokyo, Japan Proposed • 1000 m (3, 281 ft) • Triple decker elevators – cap. 70 • 14 sky plateaus • 35, 000 residents and 100, 000 workers http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Sky_City_1000

Bionic Tower Proposed • • • Shanghai or Hong Kong 3, 701 ft (1,

Bionic Tower Proposed • • • Shanghai or Hong Kong 3, 701 ft (1, 128 m) 300 floors 100, 000 residents 368 elevators ~ $15 B+ cost http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Bionic_tower

Far Future

Far Future

Shimzu Mega City Try-4000 Proposed • over Tokyo Bay in Japan • House 750,

Shimzu Mega City Try-4000 Proposed • over Tokyo Bay in Japan • House 750, 000 people • If built, it will be the largest man-made structure on Earth. • 2, 004 m (6, 575 ft) high (12 x higher than the Great Pyramid at Giza) • Cannot be built with currently available materials, due to their weight. • Relies on the future availability of super-strong lightweight materials based on carbon nanotubes.

X-seed 4000, Japan Proposed • Inspired by Mt. Fuji, but would be taller •

X-seed 4000, Japan Proposed • Inspired by Mt. Fuji, but would be taller • 13, 123 ft (4, 000 m) • 800 floors • 0. 5 – 1 million residents • $100 s billion

Abandoned

Abandoned

Mile High Tower Frank Lloyd Wright Proposed but not adopted • The Illinois •

Mile High Tower Frank Lloyd Wright Proposed but not adopted • The Illinois • 5, 280 ft (1, 609 m) • 528 stories • 76 elevators • Sway would be addressed by tripod design (like CN tower) • and possibly a counterweight (like Taipei 101) http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/The_Illinois

Panama City < Ice Tower Started March 2007, cancelled June 2007 Third super tall

Panama City < Ice Tower Started March 2007, cancelled June 2007 Third super tall skyscraper to be cancelled in Panama City • 1, 250 ft (381 m) • 104 floors Palacio de la Bahía (Bay Palace) > • 1, 158 ft (353 m) • 93 floors • started 28 July, 2006, cancelled by developer as unbuildable Torre Generali >> • 1, 044 ft (318 m) • 52 floors • views of Atlantic and Pacific from top floors • cancelled in 2001 due to economic conditions

abandoned by Pieter Bruegel Tower of Babel

abandoned by Pieter Bruegel Tower of Babel