- Slides: 45
Talkie Time and Quick Review
Learning Competencies for the day: • Differentiate the types of experimental design • Evaluate the characteristics of the types of variables and data • Describe the Characteristics of Experimental Design
Buzz Session: Discuss in the group the following: 1. When you had your Investigatory project making what were the elements/conditions/factors that you consider in doing the experiment, discuss each factor 2. What were the challenges that made your study successful and unsuccessful?
Types of investigatory projects according to output: Display projects Experimental projects Engineering projects / Mechanical or Robotics
Display projects: Display projects involve making a display model of something. Models are often made using cardboards, construction paper, balsa wood, glue, modeling clay and other materials found at home or in an art & craft store. Display projects are usually for younger students from kindergarten to the 3 rd Grade. By making a model, students can visualize something or some conditions and learn it better while they also develop their craft skills.
Following are some more examples of display projects: Model of Savannah (When learning about habitats) Model of Solar System Model of Volcano (When learning about the Earth) Model of Windmill Model of Eye Model of Plant cell Model of Atom DNA model (This is for high school students) Display projects would start with a question but do not have a hypothesis. Display projects are mostly art and craft projects that are used as a learning tool. It helps students to visualize and memorize scientific concepts.
Experimental Projects: Experimental projects are true investigatory projects. Experimental projects are the only type of science projects that must start with one specific question or purpose. In experimental projects students need to identify the independent (manipulated) variables and dependent (responding) variables. They must also predict the results and write them as their hypothesis. Following are samples of experimental projects? How does the amount of light affect plant growth? How do different fruits vary in their mineral content? Compare different metals for their ability to conduct heat. Which fruits can make more electricity?
Engineering projects: Engineering projects are science projects in which you will construct a functioning model. Doing an engineering project is like solving many problems at the same time. Engineering projects aim on making something that works or has specific properties. Following are samples of engineering projects: Make Make Make an electric motor an electric generator a radio a light bulb a crane a water wheel powerhouse a windmill (working model) a battery an effective fire retardant
THE EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH -Most accurate research. -The description of “What Will Be? ” or what will occur, under carefully controlled conditions. -Termed as method of difference – in process of conditio one is manipulated and one is controlled. -Leads itself to easier manipulation because of quantitative entities. -Observations are done under controlled conditions. -Can be conducted in the laboratory, in class room or fie -Laboratory experiments are intensive and exciting -Most often experiments are limited to a small number o cases or subjects. -There is more through analysis of variable factors.
Types of experimental research design: • 1. True - experimental designs • 2. quasi – experimental designs
All experimental designs involve: • Treatment • Outcome • Comparison from which change can be inferred and attributed to the treatment
Variables – Characteristics or property whereby the members of the group set differ from one another. A. Independent Variables – “X variable or Predictor Variable” - Characteristics or condition that is introduced, removed or manipulated to cause a change in the dependent variable that is to be observed or measured. - Predictor of Input B. Dependent Variable – “Y variable or Response Variable” - Characteristics or condition that is observed and measured to find out how the independent variable affects it. - (Outcome or attitude variable) C. Z Variable – “Moderator Variable” - Secondary independent variable that is included and measured in the study to determine whether it affects, modify or alter the relation between the independent and dependent variable.
KINDS OF DATA (VALUES OF VARIABLES) Ratio Interval Ordinal Categorical Dep. Ed National Training of Trainers a. CAR
Kinds of Data (Values ) 1. Most precise: Ratio Data, e. g. , 0 – 100 Zero is zero. 2. Interval Data – numbers have equal intervals, zero is not necessarily zero • 3. Ordinal Data – ranks; intervals may not be equal; • 4. Least Precise: Categorical Data – categories • Examples: temperature, age, height, weight • Examples: test score, rating • Examples: 1 st, 2 nd, 3 rd, … • Examples: male/female, Catholic/Protestant/Muslim Dep. Ed National Training of Trainers Acar
• Example: The Effectiveness of Tannin Extract Obtained from Guava Leaves on the Infected Wound of the Rabbit.
Example: Testing whether the period of Time of a simple pendulum depends on mass of the bob and length of string
Application: Identify the variables in the following titles and tell whether such variable is independent or dependent: 1. Relationship between age and academic performance 2. The effects of light to the growth of mongo seeds. 3. Instructional media in relation to scores in quizzes 4. Success and Knowledge 5. Effects of attitude to grades in Math 6. Socio-economic status in relation to attendance in classroom
Characteristics of True Experimental Design: • Manipulation • Control • Randomization
Manipulation • The experimenter does something to at least some of the subjects in the experiment. The introduction of that something is often referred to as the experimental treatment or experimental intervention. This is also known as independent variable.
Control • This refers to the subjects that do not receive the experimental treatment and their performance on the dependent variable serves as a basis for evaluating the performance of the experimental group (the group that received the experimental treatment) on the same dependent variable.
Randomization • The assignment of subjects to groups on a random basis. Random means that every subject has an equal chance of being assigned to any group.
A. TRUE EXPERIMENT - experiment that leads to an unambiguous outcome regarding what caused an event. - Three Characteristics: 1. Some type of intervention or treatment is implemented 2. The experimenter has a high degree of control over the arrangement of experimental conditions, assignment o participants, systematic manipulation of independent variables and choice of dependent variables. 3. There is an appropriate comparison in order to evalua the effectiveness of a treatment.
B. QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL GROUP - semi or partial experiment because it lacks one or more of the proper of a true, pure or full experiment. The missing property is either randomization, control group or validity of component. - Randomization is the process of getting a sample such that every individual that comprises the population will be given an equal chanc to be included as sample. - No control group is used as basis for comparison. - Validity of the cause and effect inferences may be challenged since on human judgment rather than objective criteria is utilized in reaching decision. - Weakened if there are extraneous variables that may influence or affe the dependent variable due to the absence of a control group.
INTEL Philippine Science Fair for High School Students Basic Sciences Botany Zoology Microbiology Biochemistry Chemistry Physics Mathematics
Applied Sciences Computer and Engineering Computer Science Engineering Medicine and Health Other Applied Sciences Earth and Space Sciences Environmental Science Biotechnology
Biochemistry Investigatory Projects Insecticidal Property of Acacia Seeds and Bark Against Termites Insecticidal Effect of Yellow Oleander Fruit Extract on Rice Bugs Cassava starch as an effective component for Ideal Biodegradable Plastic
Botany Investigatory Projects Potential of Weed Extracts to Control Bacterial Blight Disease Cacao Seeds as Regulator of Angiogenesis in Duck Embryos Plants Extracts as Control Agents of Braconid Rapid In-Vivo Propagation of Curcums Using Stem Cuttings grown in Different Media
Chemistry Investigatory Projects Prototype Nickel-Tin Catalytic Converter Post harvest Shelflife of Table Bananas with Chitosan Coating Fish Scales Wastes for the Recovery of Astaxanthin
Microbiology Investigatory Projects Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Lato Arresting Microbes with Sea Urchin Basidiomycetous Mycelial Isolates as Compost Inoculant
Physics Investigatory Projects Repulsorlifts as a Method of Stable Magnetic Levitation Cost-Effective Free Fall Apparatus
ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENT OBTAINED FROM THE MIDGUT OF CATTLE LEECHES Efrellene T. Galula Agusan del Sur National High School Leeches in the Philippines are considered parasitic, useless and source of unpleasant emotions among leech victims and bystanders. This study significantly determines the presence of antibacterial agent from leech midgut as an effective source of natural antibiotics.
Large mature cattle leeches were collected from free flowing streams, ditches, canals and those that are attached parasitizing animals. The specimens were soaked in 15% ethanol and then dissected under the binocular dissecting microscope. The fluids in the leech midgut were extracted using heparinized tubes, suctioned and secured in the sterilized bottles.
Crude ethanol extraction was done on the midgut fluids then antibacterial assay using S. aureus, B. subtilis, E. aerogenes and P. aeruginosa through Filter Paper Disc Diffusion Method. Zones of inhibition were measured and compared to that of the positive control, chloramphenicol. Data analysis revealed that the crude midgut fluid obtained from cattle leeches significantly inhibited the growth of P. aeruginosa, E. aerogenes, B. subtilis and S. aureus respectively where zones of inhibitions are comparable to antibiotic chloramphenicol.
Results concluded that cattle leech midgut fluid possesses antibacterial properties and therefore can be used as an alternative and effective antibacterial agent against diseases and infections caused by both gram-positive and gramnegative bacteria. (This project won 2 nd Place, Special Award, American Intellectual Property Law Association)
Some Winning Projects (INTEL 2012) “Variations in Leafhopper Populations with Location & Temperature” “Effects of Red-Spectrum Light on Cell Growth” “Biofuel Soaps from Janitor Fish Oil” “Utilization of Mine Tailings as Alternative Raw Material for Earthenware”
Some Winning Projects (INTEL 2014) “Histochemical Test and Antibacterial Effect of Oakleaf Fern Extracts” “Anti-bacterial Agent Obtained from the Midgut of Cattle Leeches” “Circle Packing” “Easy create: Web Pages Made Easy”
Science Fair Ideas Science Fair Central �Website providing information, tips and ideas on science fair projects: http: //school. discovery. com/sciencefaircentral/
Science Fair Project Resource �Guide Kid. Space at the Internet Public Library provides links to many sites that can help you with science fair ideas. Click on "Choosing a topic" to get a list of links to help you find a science fair idea. http: //www. ipl. org/div/kidspace/projectguide/
Agricultural Ideas for Science Fair Projects �The USDA has put together some science fair ideas that deal with agriculture. Scroll down the page for ideas in chemistry, botany, environmental sciences, and more. http: //www. ars. usda. gov/is/kids/fair/ideasframe. h tm
IDEAS www. cpet. ufl. edu/sciproj/sci 007. htm
Many project ideas and project guides are available on the Internet. Last year many of the students who won the first place in their local science fairs selected their projects from these websites. 1. www. Science. Project. com : This website offers the largest list of science project ideas with a brief introduction to each project. Access to the project ideas and the introduction page is free. Science. Project. com also has many project guides that include experiment design. There is a fee to view each project guide. Science. Project. com is the most comprehensive source of information for science projects on the Internet. 2. www. Kids. Love. Kits. com : This website has samples of best science project ideas. Many of such projects are related to the hot subjects such as unconventional sources of energy. Kids. Love. Kits. com also has an online store that sell discounted and low cost supplies you may need for your science experiments. 3. www. Mini. Science. com : This website offers many project ideas as well as free project guides with step by step experiment design. Mini. Science. com also has an online store that offers education supplies and materials or discounted kits for science project experiments. 4. There are many other websites related to science project ideas and support; however, most of them are simply repeating the same projects that can be found at Science. Project. comand Mini. Science. com. Some of these websites are:
www. BESTSCIENCEPROJECT. COM www. EXPERIMENTALPROJECTS. COM www. EXPERIMENTSONLINE. COM www. FUNPROJECT. COM www. GREATSCIENCEFAIRPROJECT. COM www. ITISFAST. NET www. MAGICPROJECTS. COM www. Science. Fair. Network. com www. SCIENCEPROJECT. US www. SCIENCEPROJECTGUIDE. COM www. SCIENCEPROJECTONLINE. COM www. SCIENCEPROJECTS. ORG www. SCIENCEPROJECTSONLINE. COM www. SCIENCE-PROJECTS-ONLINE. COM www. SUPER-SCIENCEFAIR-PROJECT. COM www. SUPER-SCIENCE-FAIR-PROJECT. COM www. SUPER-SCIENCEFAIR-PROJECTS. COM www. SUPERSCIENCEPROJECT. COM www. SUPER-SCIENCE-PROJECT. COM www. SUPERSCIENCEPROJECTS. COM www. SUPER-SCIENCE-PROJECTS. COM www. THISCOVER. COM
Appreciation Time Video on Applied Experiment: Robot that segregates Trashes
Test on variables and Data Values