T n A new view and on the

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T n A new view and on the QCD phase diagram Recent Lattice Gauge

T n A new view and on the QCD phase diagram Recent Lattice Gauge Theory results n Quarkyonic phase & TRIPLE POINT in HIC Early universe Quarkyonic Phase and the QCD Phase Diagram: HIC-II A-A collisions fixed Quark-Gluon Plasma Chiral symmetry restored Hadronic matter Chiral symmetry broken x B 1 st principle calculations: perturbation theory p. QCD LGT

 QCD thermodynamics in effective models n Models based on same symmetries as QCD

QCD thermodynamics in effective models n Models based on same symmetries as QCD : chiral with order parameter center with order parameter due to universality one expects similar critical properties n Approach based on the Schwinger - Dyson Equation n Use Ads/QCD correspondence to gain information on QCD medium properties? 2

Generic Phase diagram from effective chiral Lagrangians then (Pisarski-Wilczek) O(4)/O(2) univ. ; see LGT

Generic Phase diagram from effective chiral Lagrangians then (Pisarski-Wilczek) O(4)/O(2) univ. ; see LGT , Eijri et al 09 crossover CP Asakawa-Yazaki n 2 nd order, Z(2) (Stephanov et al. ) 1 st order Hatsuda et al. Alford et al. Shuryak et al. Rajagopal et al. Zhang et al, Kitazawa et al. , Hatta, Ikeda; Fukushima et al. , Ratti et al. , Sasaki et al. , Blaschke et al. , Hell et al. , Roessner et al. , . . n The existence and position of CP and transition is model and parameter dependent !! Introducing di-quarks and their interactions with quark condensate results in CSC phase and dependently on the strength of interactions to new CP’s 3

Probing CP with charge fluctuations n Net quark-number and electric charge fluctuations , isovector

Probing CP with charge fluctuations n Net quark-number and electric charge fluctuations , isovector CP The CP ( ) and TCP ( ) are the only A non-monotonic behaviour of charge points where the baryon number and electric density fluctuations are 4 charge densities diverge! excellent probes of the CP

Sasaki, Friman et al. 07

Sasaki, Friman et al. 07

Finite baryon density LGT in 2+1 f and CEP Fodor & Katz 04: multi-parameter

Finite baryon density LGT in 2+1 f and CEP Fodor & Katz 04: multi-parameter rewighting F. Karsch at al. 07 T [Me. V] Det M exactly included in calculations Use the Lee-Yang theorem to identify CP See also: S. Ejiri 08 Det M through Taylor expansion method: Study radius of convergence and fluctuations to identify CP; No strong evidence of CP till now 6

LGT EOS at finite T and vanishing baryon density A. Bazavov et al. hot.

LGT EOS at finite T and vanishing baryon density A. Bazavov et al. hot. QCD Coll. 09 Asymptoticaly: 1. Kurtosis an excellent probe of deconfinement Abrupt but smooth change of energy and chiral dynamics: A cusp-structure at density indicates crossover transition : Results still not free from finite size effects! for small expected from O(2) scaling 7

Finite Size Effects in LGT Thermodynamics hot. QCD Coll. 07 8 Y. Aoki et

Finite Size Effects in LGT Thermodynamics hot. QCD Coll. 07 8 Y. Aoki et al. 09 T>0 Thermodynamics from p 4 fat action with is still calculated with nonphysical mass spectrum; Different critical temperatures: Y. Aoki et al 09 hot. QCD Coll. 07

Thermodynamics in LGT with Highly Improved Staggered Quarks (HISQ) A. Bazavov 1 & P.

Thermodynamics in LGT with Highly Improved Staggered Quarks (HISQ) A. Bazavov 1 & P. Petreczky, Hot. QCD Coll. 09 Tendency of shifting the transition region to lower temperatures than in previous asqtad and p 4 studies on lattice ! 9

Novel Phase of QCD in the limit “ Quarkyonic Phase “ L. Mc. Lerran

Novel Phase of QCD in the limit “ Quarkyonic Phase “ L. Mc. Lerran & R. Pisarski 07 -09 Quarks O( ) Gluons O( ) “quark-yonic” : L. Mc. Lerran, C. Sasaki and K. R. 09 Quarkyonic phase can persists for M. Harada, C. Sasaki, S. Takemoto 0910

Deconfinemnet at finite number of color At finite quarks destroy 1 st order deconfinement

Deconfinemnet at finite number of color At finite quarks destroy 1 st order deconfinement phase transition to cross-over 11

Quarkionic Phase (QP) in models with Quarkionic Polyakov Loop extended NJL model (PNJL) T

Quarkionic Phase (QP) in models with Quarkionic Polyakov Loop extended NJL model (PNJL) T [Ge. V] L. Mc. Lerran, C. Sasaki & K. R. 09 M. Harada, C. Sasaki, S. Takemoto 09 Quarkyonic QP Order parameter of sym. The Quarkionic Phase can persists for , thus could be also there in QCD? Order parameter of chiral symmetry restoration

Probing the QCD Phase Boundary in HIC L. Mc. Lerran, R. Pisarski et al.

Probing the QCD Phase Boundary in HIC L. Mc. Lerran, R. Pisarski et al. ry Ba Meson dominant t an in om d on CP Freezeout line provide lower bound of the QCD phase boundary with clear separation of baryonic and mesonic dominance at Possible phase diagram of QCD with “Triple Point” and Quarkyonic Phase

A. Andronic, P. Braun-Munzinger, J. Stachel 09 Particle ratios in HIC from SIS to

A. Andronic, P. Braun-Munzinger, J. Stachel 09 Particle ratios in HIC from SIS to RHIC An abrupt change in excitation functions of particle ratios at [Ge. V] change of production dynamics from quarkyonic ( etc. ) to partonic via hadronization of the QGP? Quarkyonic Phase and HIC: Andronic, Blaschke, Braun-Munzinger, Cleymans, Fukushima, Mc. Lerran, Oeschler, Pisarski, Redlich, Sasaki, Satz, , Stachel ar. Xiv: 0911. 4806

HBT & Freezeout volume Minimum of HBT and freezeout Volume at energies where Triple

HBT & Freezeout volume Minimum of HBT and freezeout Volume at energies where Triple Point is expected to appear in QCD phase diagram 15

Summary n Effective chiral models provide a powerful tool to study the critical consequences

Summary n Effective chiral models provide a powerful tool to study the critical consequences of the chiral symmetry restoration and deconfinement in QCD, however to quantify the QCD phase diagram and thermodynamics requires the first principle LGT calculations New results from LGT constrain the critical temperature at vanishing density to be < 170 Me. V New phase diagram of QCD with Quarkyonic Phase results in Triple Point where three phases Hadronic Matter, Quarkyonic Matter, and a Quark-Gluon Plasma meet. Some properties of HIC data are consistent with existence of such Triple Point: Physics for FAIR & NICA to develope 16