Systems Planning and Analysis Chapter 10 2004 Prentice

  • Slides: 47
Download presentation
Systems Planning and Analysis Chapter 10 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems,

Systems Planning and Analysis Chapter 10 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 10 – 1

Learning Objective 1 Describe the relationship of systems analysis to systems development as a

Learning Objective 1 Describe the relationship of systems analysis to systems development as a whole. 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 2

Overview of Systems Planning and Analysis Systems planning involves identifying subsystems within the information

Overview of Systems Planning and Analysis Systems planning involves identifying subsystems within the information system. Systems analysis begins after systems planning has identified subsystems for development. 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 3

Overview of Systems Planning and Analysis Objectives of Systems Analysis 1. Gain an understanding

Overview of Systems Planning and Analysis Objectives of Systems Analysis 1. Gain an understanding of the existing system (if one exists). 2. Identify and understand problems. 3. Express identified problems in terms of information needs and system requirements. 4. Clearly identify subsystems to be given highest priority. Focus n Identify critical success factors. n Give special attention to these factors. 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 4

Overview of Systems Planning and Analysis Cost Patterns at Varying Development Stages Cost in

Overview of Systems Planning and Analysis Cost Patterns at Varying Development Stages Cost in Dollars Systems Analysis Systems Design Systems Implementation 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 5

Systems Planning and Feasibility Analysis Phases 1. Discussing and planning on the part of

Systems Planning and Feasibility Analysis Phases 1. Discussing and planning on the part of top management 2. Establishing a systems planning steering committee 3. Establishing overall objectives and constraints 4. Developing a strategic information systems plan 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 6

Systems Planning and Feasibility Analysis Phases 5. Identifying and prioritizing specific areas within the

Systems Planning and Feasibility Analysis Phases 5. Identifying and prioritizing specific areas within the organization for the systems development focus 6. Setting forth a systems proposal. 7. Assembling a team of individuals for purposes of the analysis and preliminary systems design 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 7

Systems Planning and Top Management Developing objectives and system constraints Developing a strategic systems

Systems Planning and Top Management Developing objectives and system constraints Developing a strategic systems plan Identifying individual projects for priority Commissioning the systems project 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 8

Learning Objectives 2 and 4 Describe the various stages of systems analysis. Describe some

Learning Objectives 2 and 4 Describe the various stages of systems analysis. Describe some of the human problems involved in systems analysis. 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 9

The Steps of Systems Analysis Step 1: Survey current system Step 2: Identify information

The Steps of Systems Analysis Step 1: Survey current system Step 2: Identify information needs Step 3: Identify systems requirements Step 4: Systems analysis report 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 10

Phase I: Survey the Present System Gain a fundamental understanding of the operational aspects

Phase I: Survey the Present System Gain a fundamental understanding of the operational aspects of the system. Establish a working relationship with users. Collect important data. Identify specific problems. 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 11

Phase I: Survey the Present System Communication Gap Problem Systems Analyst Job security Uncertainty

Phase I: Survey the Present System Communication Gap Problem Systems Analyst Job security Uncertainty Resistance to change Management 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 12

Phase I: Survey the Present System Get to know as many people involved in

Phase I: Survey the Present System Get to know as many people involved in the system as soon as possible. Communicate the benefits of the proposed system. 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 13

Phase I: Survey the Present System Inside Sources for gathering facts Outside Analysis of

Phase I: Survey the Present System Inside Sources for gathering facts Outside Analysis of survey findings 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 14

Phase II: Identify Information Needs Identify the manager’s primary job responsibilities. Identify the means

Phase II: Identify Information Needs Identify the manager’s primary job responsibilities. Identify the means by which the manager is evaluated. Identify some of the major problems the manager faces. Identify the means by which the manager evaluates personal output. 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 15

Phase III: Identify the Systems Requirements 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems,

Phase III: Identify the Systems Requirements 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 16

Phase IV: Develop a Systems Analysis Report What are key elements of this report?

Phase IV: Develop a Systems Analysis Report What are key elements of this report? A summary of the scope and purpose of the analysis project A reiteration of the relationship of the project to the overall strategic information systems plan A description of any overall problems in the specific subsystem being studied 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 17

Phase IV: Develop a Systems Analysis Report A summary of the decisions being made

Phase IV: Develop a Systems Analysis Report A summary of the decisions being made and their specific information requirements Specification of system performance requirements An overall cost budget and timetable Recommendations for improving the existing system and modifying objectives 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 18

Learning Objective 3 Discuss the major techniques for gathering and organizing data for systems

Learning Objective 3 Discuss the major techniques for gathering and organizing data for systems analysis. 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 19

Techniques for Fact Organization Warnier–Orr Illustration Determine discount Compute total amount due for invoices

Techniques for Fact Organization Warnier–Orr Illustration Determine discount Compute total amount due for invoices (n ) Due date > = today’s date + Due date < today’s date Discount = percent × gross amount Discount = 0 Amount due = gross – discount Accumulate total amount due 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 20

Techniques for Gathering Facts for Analysis Depth interview Structured interview Open-ended questionnaire Closed-ended questionnaire

Techniques for Gathering Facts for Analysis Depth interview Structured interview Open-ended questionnaire Closed-ended questionnaire Document reviews Observation 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 21

Techniques for Fact Organization Work measurement Work distribution Flow charting Decision analysis Functional analysis

Techniques for Fact Organization Work measurement Work distribution Flow charting Decision analysis Functional analysis Hierarchical function Matrix analysis Narratives File/report summaries 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 22

Structured Systems Analysis This is an approach to systems analysis that begins with a

Structured Systems Analysis This is an approach to systems analysis that begins with a general description of a particular system. Logical flow diagrams versus Flowcharts Systems design versus Systems analysis 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 23

Steps in Structured Systems Analysis Develop logical data flow diagrams Define data dictionaries Define

Steps in Structured Systems Analysis Develop logical data flow diagrams Define data dictionaries Define access methods Define process logic 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 24

Purchasing System Context Diagram Stores Purchase details Purchase file Requisition Purchasing system Purchase order

Purchasing System Context Diagram Stores Purchase details Purchase file Requisition Purchasing system Purchase order Vendors 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 25

Expansion of Purchasing System Context Diagram Requisition details Stores Purchase file Requisition Validate requisition

Expansion of Purchasing System Context Diagram Requisition details Stores Purchase file Requisition Validate requisition Prepare purchase order Details Purchase order Vendors 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 26

Structured English Access purchase file for each purchase requisition. IF account no. on requisition

Structured English Access purchase file for each purchase requisition. IF account no. on requisition equals account-no-1 THEN flag account-no-1 field ELSE IF account no. on requisition equals account-no-2 THEN flag account-no-2 field ELSE (none of the above) SO void the transaction and generate error code 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 27

Learning Objectives 5 and 7 Describe the various steps involved in specifying systems design

Learning Objectives 5 and 7 Describe the various steps involved in specifying systems design alternatives. Describe the content of a systems design proposal. 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 28

Steps in Systems Design Systems planning and analysis Systems Design 1 Evaluate various designs

Steps in Systems Design Systems planning and analysis Systems Design 1 Evaluate various designs 2 Prepare design specifications Systems implementation 3 Systems design specifications Systems review and control 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 29

Evaluating Design Alternatives Enumeration of design alternatives Describing the alternatives Evaluating the alternatives Preparing

Evaluating Design Alternatives Enumeration of design alternatives Describing the alternatives Evaluating the alternatives Preparing design specifications 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 30

Design of System Elements Reports and other outputs Database design Control considerations Specify processing

Design of System Elements Reports and other outputs Database design Control considerations Specify processing Specify inputs Type of control Function of control Applicable systems component 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 31

Preparing and Submitting Specifications What should the design proposal include? Specific timetables for completion

Preparing and Submitting Specifications What should the design proposal include? Specific timetables for completion Budget Description of personnel requirements Flowcharts Other diagrams 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 32

Learning Objective 6 Discuss the various considerations relevant to preparing design specifications. 2004 Prentice

Learning Objective 6 Discuss the various considerations relevant to preparing design specifications. 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 33

Design Considerations System Element Outputs (report or document) Database Design Consideration Cost effectiveness Relevance

Design Considerations System Element Outputs (report or document) Database Design Consideration Cost effectiveness Relevance Clarity Timeliness Cost effectiveness Integration Standardization Flexibility Security Accuracy Efficiency Organization 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 34

Design Considerations System Element Data processing Design Consideration Cost effectiveness Uniformity Integration Accuracy Data

Design Considerations System Element Data processing Design Consideration Cost effectiveness Uniformity Integration Accuracy Data input Cost effectiveness Accuracy Uniformity Integration Controls and security measures Cost effectiveness Comprehensiveness Appropriateness 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 35

Learning Objective 8 Summarize several major design techniques. 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting

Learning Objective 8 Summarize several major design techniques. 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 36

Design Techniques Forms design Database design Systems design packages 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing,

Design Techniques Forms design Database design Systems design packages 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 37

Learning Objective 9 Discuss the usefulness of systems design packages. 2004 Prentice Hall Business

Learning Objective 9 Discuss the usefulness of systems design packages. 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 38

Systems Design Packages Data flow diagrams Narrative documentation Screen and report prototypes Data dictionary

Systems Design Packages Data flow diagrams Narrative documentation Screen and report prototypes Data dictionary descriptions 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 39

Choosing Software and Hardware What are some advantages of purchased software packages? They are

Choosing Software and Hardware What are some advantages of purchased software packages? They are cheaper. They are already debugged. Trials of the product can be made prior to investing a great deal of money. 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 40

Choosing Software and Hardware What is the main disadvantage of purchased software packages? They

Choosing Software and Hardware What is the main disadvantage of purchased software packages? They rarely exactly meet a company’s needs. 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 41

Choosing Software and Hardware It is usually safe to be content with the hardware

Choosing Software and Hardware It is usually safe to be content with the hardware on which that software runs. It is recommended to get machinery that is upwardly compatible. 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 42

“Real” Systems Life Cycle Wild enthusiasm Disillusionment Total confusion 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing,

“Real” Systems Life Cycle Wild enthusiasm Disillusionment Total confusion 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 43

“Real” Systems Life Cycle Search for the guilty Punishment of the innocent Promotion of

“Real” Systems Life Cycle Search for the guilty Punishment of the innocent Promotion of nonparticipants 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 44

Communication Problems in Systems Development As proposed by the user manager As approved by

Communication Problems in Systems Development As proposed by the user manager As approved by the steering committee As structured by the data administrator 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 45

Communication Problems in Systems Development As designed by the lead analyst As implemented by

Communication Problems in Systems Development As designed by the lead analyst As implemented by the application programmers What the user actually wanted 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 46

End of Chapter 10 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by

End of Chapter 10 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Accounting Information Systems, 9/e, by Bodnar/Hopwood 10 – 47