Systematic Theology By Ryan Martin Systematic Theology is

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Systematic Theology By Ryan Martin

Systematic Theology By Ryan Martin

§ Systematic Theology is the organization and presentation of the Christian faith in a

§ Systematic Theology is the organization and presentation of the Christian faith in a purposeful way. § Think of it as answering questions: Who What is Systematic Theology? is God? Who is Jesus? What is Baptism? Etc. , § We are going to examine the core doctrines of the Christian faith. § The Bible, God, Creation, Humanity, Sin, Jesus, The Holy Spirit, Salvation, The Church, The Sacraments, and The Eschaton (Christian hope).

§ The Bible § The most important authority we have § The Bible often

§ The Bible § The most important authority we have § The Bible often presents us with mysteries, not direct answers § Tradition § The general consensus of Christians over the last Four Sources of Authority 2, 000 years (so not just Co. C) § The next best place to turn after Scripture § Reason § God gave us rational minds that are oriented towards seeking truth § There are certain things that we can achieve through reason, but not everything § Personal Experience § What we experience in life as Christians § While the least authoritative, it is still very important

We believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, and

We believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible. The Nicene Creed (381) And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, begotten of the Father before all worlds, Light of Light, very God of very God, begotten, not made, being of one substance with the Father; by whom all things were made; who for us men, and for our salvation, came down from heaven, and was incarnate by the Holy Spirit and of the Virgin Mary, and was made man; he was crucified for us under Pontius Pilate, and suffered, and was buried, and the third day he rose again, according to the Scriptures, and ascended into heaven, and sits at the right hand of the Father; from there he shall come again, with glory, to judge the living and the dead; whose kingdom shall have no end. And in the Holy Spirit, the Lord and Giver of life, who proceeds from the Father, who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified, who spoke by the prophets. And in one, holy, universal, and apostolic Church; we acknowledge one baptism for the remission of sins; we look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. Amen.

Bibliology The Study of the Nature of Scripture

Bibliology The Study of the Nature of Scripture

What is the Bible?

What is the Bible?

§ 2 Timothy 3: 16 -17 § All Scripture is God-breathed and is According

§ 2 Timothy 3: 16 -17 § All Scripture is God-breathed and is According to Scripture profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness, so that the man of God may be complete, equipped for every good work. § The Bible does not have much to say about itself § The focus is on God, after all

§ Christians have always held that Scripture is divinely inspired § This means that

§ Christians have always held that Scripture is divinely inspired § This means that though written by human hands, the words of Scripture also a communication directly from God § “We have known the method of our salvation by no According to Tradition other means than those by whom the Gospel came to us; which Gospel they truly preached; but afterward, by the will of God, they delivered to us in the Scriptures, to be for the future the foundation and pillar of our faith. ” – St. Irenaeus, 130 -202 § “Let us therefore yield ourselves to the authority of Holy Scripture, which can neither err nor deceive. ” – St. Augustine, 354 -430

§ Archaeological evidence has confirmed that the historical sections are indeed accurate § The

§ Archaeological evidence has confirmed that the historical sections are indeed accurate § The existence of many biblical figures has been confirmed According to Reason § Even details down to the price of a horse have been confirmed as accurate § There are more ancient manuscripts of the Bible than any other ancient work § Across the thousands of texts and fragments, the variation across time and location is so small it’s astounding § The Bible is a reliable source

According to Experience

According to Experience

Theology Proper The Study of God

Theology Proper The Study of God

§ God is Love § 1 John 4: 8 § John 4: 24 §

§ God is Love § 1 John 4: 8 § John 4: 24 § God is Holy § God is Light § Leviticus 19: 2 § God is Wise According to Scripture § God is Spirit § Romans 11: 33 -34 § God is Beautiful § 1 John 1: 5 § God is Creator § Genesis 1: 1 § God is Savior § Isaiah 33: 17 § Isaiah 43: 11 § God is Powerful § God is Uncaused § Hebrews 1: 3 § Exodus 3: 14 § God is Just § Psalm 33: 5 § God is Wholly Good § James 1: 13

§ Since the Bible is so comprehensive on this topic, there isn’t much tradition

§ Since the Bible is so comprehensive on this topic, there isn’t much tradition can add § Christians of the past (and present) mainly According to Tradition try to expound on what Scripture means when it says God is love, holy, etc. , § They aren’t trying to add new things about God § They are trying to deepen our understanding of what has been revealed § “We believe in one God, the Father, maker of heaven and earth, creator of all things, visible and invisible. ” – Nicene Creed, 381

§ There have been many philosophical insights into the nature of God that align

§ There have been many philosophical insights into the nature of God that align with what Scripture teaches § God is the Uncaused Cause – Aristotle § God is the Highest Good – Plato According to Reason § God is Simple – St. Thomas Aquinas § This means that God is not dependent upon parts for his existence § God is Timeless – Boethius § This means that God is not bound by time § God is omnipotent, omniscient, and omnipresent – unknown (probably Aristotle) § God is Personal – William Lane Craig

According to Experience

According to Experience

The Mystery of the Trinity Father, Son, and Holy Spirit

The Mystery of the Trinity Father, Son, and Holy Spirit

§ The Mystery of the Trinity originates in Scripture § Matthew 28: 19; Hebrews

§ The Mystery of the Trinity originates in Scripture § Matthew 28: 19; Hebrews 9: 14 § Scripture teaches that God is One § Deuteronomy 6: 4; Psalm 86: 10; Isaiah 43: 10; Mark 12: 29 According to Scripture § Scripture also teaches that Jesus is God § John 8: 58; 10: 30; 1: 1 -3; Philippians 2: 5 -7; Titus 2: 13 § Scripture also teaches that the Holy Spirit is God § 2 Corinthians 3: 16 -18; Acts 5: 3 -4; John 16: 1415 § Scripture presents us with a mystery

§ Christians of the past also struggled with this mystery § The first several

§ Christians of the past also struggled with this mystery § The first several councils were called due to Trinitarian controversies § Belief in the Trinity is evident from the earliest sources § Ignatius of Antioch in 110 § Justin Martyr, who lived from 100 -165 According to Tradition § Baptism done in the name of the Father, Son, and Spirit § Tradition gave us the language of the Trinity § The word “Trinity” was first used by Tertullian in the 3 rd century, meaning “three in one” § One God in three persons § The members of the Trinity are co-eternal, co-equal, and consubstantial § One essence, three persons § Tradition does not explain the mystery, but it does help us reflect on it and talk about it

§ This is one area where reason is inadequate § We cannot hope to

§ This is one area where reason is inadequate § We cannot hope to fully understand the nature of God § Many analogies of the Trinity have been According to Reason invented over the years in order to explain it § The Apple, The Sun, Psychological Analogy, The Cube, etc. , § All analogies fall short and do not properly explain the mystery § What reason can determine is that God is beyond our comprehension § This makes God worthy of worship and devotion § The Trinity is beyond reason, not contrary to it

According to Experience

According to Experience

Cosmology The Study of Creation

Cosmology The Study of Creation

What is Creation?

What is Creation?

§ Everything was made by God § Genesis 1: 1; John 1: 3 §

§ Everything was made by God § Genesis 1: 1; John 1: 3 § Creation belongs to God § Psalm 95: 4 -5; Colossians 1: 16 According to Scripture § Creation reveals God § Romans 1: 20 § Creation is dependent on God § Colossians 1: 17 § Creation is good § Genesis 1

§ The created world has always been seen as a good thing that reveals

§ The created world has always been seen as a good thing that reveals God § “Some people, in order to discover God, According to Tradition read books. But there is a great book: the very appearance of created things. Look above you! Look below you! Read it. God, whom you want to discover, never wrote that book with ink. Instead, He set before your eyes the things that He had made. Can you ask for a louder voice than that? ” – St. Augustine

§ Science has revealed much about the created world § Our universe operates on

§ Science has revealed much about the created world § Our universe operates on a According to Reason consistent set of laws § We can make sense of the universe § Things are perfectly calibrated for life § Science can answer questions about how the universe works § Exploring this is a way of learning more about God

According to Experience

According to Experience

Theological Anthropology The Study of Humanity

Theological Anthropology The Study of Humanity

What Does It Mean to be Human?

What Does It Mean to be Human?

§ Made in God’s Image § Genesis 1: 26 -28 § Made Male and

§ Made in God’s Image § Genesis 1: 26 -28 § Made Male and Female § Genesis 1: 26 -28 § Given Dominion § Genesis 1: 28 -29 According to Scripture § Originally Created Good § Genesis 1: 31 § Made for Community § Genesis 2: 18 § A Little Lower than the Angels § Psalm 8: 5 § Intended to be Fruitful/Purposeful § Genesis 1: 28

§ Again tradition doesn’t add anything new, but tries to deepen our understanding of

§ Again tradition doesn’t add anything new, but tries to deepen our understanding of the mysteries presented in Scripture. According to Tradition § The big one is deciphering what it means to be made in God’s image. § “For there is a certain love deeply seated in our nature, which imperceptibly to ourselves knits together these bodies of ours. ” – John Chrysostom, 349 -407

§ Reason has a lot to say on the human good. § § Human

§ Reason has a lot to say on the human good. § § Human beings are rational. Human beings are inventive. Human beings are curious. Human beings are creative. § The potential of the human good was the According to Reason foundation of the Enlightenment. While this cultural movement had its issues (many theological, philosophical, and ethical) it did lead to the advancement of science, medicine, and technology that we still enjoy today. It was fundamentally based on the Christian teaching that we are made in God’s image, even if those at the time vigorously denied the faith.

According to Experience

According to Experience

Hamartiology The Study of Sin

Hamartiology The Study of Sin

What is Sin?

What is Sin?

§ Sin is Corruptive § Ephesians 4: 22 § Sin is Universal § Romans

§ Sin is Corruptive § Ephesians 4: 22 § Sin is Universal § Romans 3: 23 According to Scripture § Sin Separates us from God § Isaiah 59: 2 § Sin Leads to Death § James 1: 15 § Sin Affects the World § Romans 8: 20 -22

§ Tradition has spent a lot of time exploring the question of sin. §

§ Tradition has spent a lot of time exploring the question of sin. § The consensus has always been that According to Tradition sin is serious, prevents our turning to God, and fundamentally corrupts our nature. § “Sin is looking for the right thing in the wrong place. ” – Augustine § “Sin is believing the lie that you are selfcreated, self-dependent, and selfsustained. ” - Augustine § “Our free will or human nature is not sufficient to seek God in any manner. ” – Origen

§ By reason we clearly see that According to Reason something is not right

§ By reason we clearly see that According to Reason something is not right in this world. § War § Crime § Illness § Suffering § Shame § Take a look at human history, or even the local news, and the problem and effects of sin are evident.

According to Experience

According to Experience

§ Is the guilt of sin passed down from Adam? § Romans 5: 12

§ Is the guilt of sin passed down from Adam? § Romans 5: 12 -14 § Augustine crafted the doctrine of The Question of Original Sin, which teaches that all people bear the guilt of Adam’s sin. § This is possibly the most influential thing Augustine did. § Whether we know it or not, our discussions on sin are based on and shaped by this idea. § All people are born with a sinful nature, but are not guilty of sin until they act upon that nature on their own volition.

Christology The Study of Jesus

Christology The Study of Jesus

Who is Jesus?

Who is Jesus?

§ The Word § John 1: 1 § The Son of God § Mark

§ The Word § John 1: 1 § The Son of God § Mark 1: 1 § The Son of Man § Luke 9: 58 According to Scripture § The Way, Truth, and Life § John 14: 6 § The King of Kings and Lord of Lords § Revelation 17: 14 § The Messiah § Matthew 1: 1 § God with Us § Matthew 1: 23 § The Judge § 2 Timothy 4: 8 § Faithful and True § Revelation 19: 11 § Our Advocate § 1 John 2: 1 § The Great High Priest § Hebrews 4: 14 § The Mediator § 1 Timothy 2: 5 § The Image of God § Colossians 1: 15 § Firstborn from the Dead § Colossians 1: 18

§ Jesus is easily the most talked about and written about topic in Christian

§ Jesus is easily the most talked about and written about topic in Christian history. Tradition has and continues to explore who Jesus is. § “And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only- According to Tradition begotten Son of God, begotten of the Father before all worlds, Light of Light, very God of very God, begotten, not made, being of one substance with the Father; by whom all things were made; who for us men, and for our salvation, came down from heaven, and was incarnate by the Holy Spirit and of the Virgin Mary, and was made man. ” – Nicene Creed of 381

§ Reason doesn’t get us very far on this except for a few facts

§ Reason doesn’t get us very far on this except for a few facts we can identify. § Jesus was a real, historical figure that lived at the turn of the first century in Roman occupied Palestine. According to Reason § He was a religious teacher. § He was executed by the Romans via crucifixion. § His body has never been found. § No historian believes that Jesus didn’t exist. No one denies the impact he had on history. The question, that reason alone can’t answer, is why?

According to Experience

According to Experience

§ Jesus is 100% Divine and 100% Human § “Therefore, following the holy fathers,

§ Jesus is 100% Divine and 100% Human § “Therefore, following the holy fathers, we all with one accord The Mystery of the Incarnation teach men to acknowledge one and the same Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, at once complete in Godhead and complete in manhood, truly God and truly man, consisting also of a reasonable soul and body; of one substance with the Father as regards his Godhead, and at the same time of one substance with us as regards his manhood; like us in all respects, apart from sin; as regards his Godhead, begotten of the Father before the ages, but yet as regards his manhood begotten, for us men and for our salvation, of Mary the Virgin, the God-bearer; one and the same Christ, Son, Lord, Onlybegotten, recognized in two natures, without confusion, without change, without division, without separation; the distinction of natures being in no way annulled by the union, but rather the characteristics of each nature being preserved and coming together to form one person and subsistence, not as parted or separated into two persons, but one and the same Son and Only-begotten God the Word, Lord Jesus Christ; even as the prophets from earliest times spoke of him, and our Lord Jesus Christ himself taught us, and the creed of the fathers handed down to us. ” – Chalcedonian Definition (451)

The Work of Jesus

The Work of Jesus

§ Atoned for Our Sins § 1 John 2: 2 § Conquered Sin and

§ Atoned for Our Sins § 1 John 2: 2 § Conquered Sin and Death § Revelation 1: 8 § Redeems Us § Ephesians 1: 7 According to Scripture § Reconciled All Things § Colossians 1: 19 -20 § Intercedes for Us § Romans 8: 34 § Creator and Sustainer § Colossians 1: 16 § Has All Authority § Matthew 28: 18

§ While Scripture teaches that Jesus saves, it presents it as a mystery. §

§ While Scripture teaches that Jesus saves, it presents it as a mystery. § Atonement Theories § Ransom, Divine Satisfaction, Penal Substitution, Christus Victor, Moral Influence According to Tradition § “Who for us men, and for our salvation, came down from heaven, and was incarnate by the Holy Spirit and of the Virgin Mary, and was made man; he was crucified for us under Pontius Pilate, and suffered, and was buried, and the third day he rose again, according to the Scriptures, and ascended into heaven, and sits at the right hand of the Father; from there he shall come again, with glory, to judge the living and the dead; whose kingdom shall have no end. ” – Nicene Creed (381)

§ Here again we see reason fall short. According to Reason cannot explain what

§ Here again we see reason fall short. According to Reason cannot explain what Christ did. The best it can do is provide some philosophical backing for certain atonement theories. § Again this doesn’t mean that Christ’s work is unreasonable, but rather it means that our reason needs to be transformed and elevated.

According to Experience

According to Experience

Pneumatology The Study of the Holy Spirit

Pneumatology The Study of the Holy Spirit

Who is the Holy Spirit?

Who is the Holy Spirit?

§ Holy Spirit is God § Acts 5: 3 -4; 2 Corinthians 3: 16

§ Holy Spirit is God § Acts 5: 3 -4; 2 Corinthians 3: 16 -18; John 16: 1415 § Holy Spirit is from God § John 15: 7 According to Scripture § Holy Spirit is Guarantee of Inheritance § Ephesians 1: 14 § Holy Spirit is the Helper § John 15: 7 § The Bible actually doesn’t say much about who the Holy Spirit is. What we can see is that the Holy Spirit is God, yet separate and distinct from the Father and the Son.

§ Christians have always believed the Holy Spirit to be God. § “And in

§ Christians have always believed the Holy Spirit to be God. § “And in the Holy Spirit, the Lord and Giver of life, who proceeds from the Father, who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified, who spoke by the prophets. ” – Nicene Creed, 381 According to Tradition § “What does the Spirit do? His works are ineffable in majesty, and innumerable in quantity. How can we even ponder what extends beyond the ages? What did He do before creation began? How great are the graces He showered on creation? What power will He wield in the age to come? He existed; He pre-existed; He co-existed with the Father and the Son before the ages. Even if you can imagine anything beyond the ages, you will discover that the Spirit is even further before. ” – St. Basil of Caesarea (330 -379)

§ This is another area where reason According to Reason isn’t that helpful. What

§ This is another area where reason According to Reason isn’t that helpful. What applied to God applies to the Holy Spirit (obviously), but otherwise we cannot on our own power identify and quantify the Spirit (which is a good thing!)

According to Experience

According to Experience

The Work of the Holy Spirit

The Work of the Holy Spirit

§ Holy Spirit Indwells Us § 1 Corinthians 3: 16 § Holy Spirit Convicts

§ Holy Spirit Indwells Us § 1 Corinthians 3: 16 § Holy Spirit Convicts Us/the World § John 16: 8 -10 § Holy Spirit Teaches Us According to Scripture § John 16: 13 § Holy Spirit Glorifies Christ § John 16: 14 § Holy Spirit Intercedes for Us § Romans 8: 26 § Holy Spirit Sanctifies Us § Romans 15: 16

§ Christians have always held that the Holy Spirit indwells the Christian and is

§ Christians have always held that the Holy Spirit indwells the Christian and is responsible for bringing us to the Father through Christ. § The Holy Spirit is also believed to be the one who inspired the authors of Scripture. § “The Holy Spirit is present as a whole to each and wholly According to Tradition present everywhere. He is portioned out impassably and participated in as a whole. He is like a sunbeam whose grace is present to the one who enjoys him as if he were present to such a one alone, and still he illuminates land sea and is mixed with the air. Just so, indeed, the Spirit is present to each one who is fit to receive him, as if he were present to him alone, and still he sends out his grace that is complete and sufficient for all. The things that participate in him enjoy him to the extent that their nature allows, not to the extent that his power allows. ” – Basil of Caesarea

§ While reason cannot attest to the inner workings of the Spirit, we can

§ While reason cannot attest to the inner workings of the Spirit, we can observe results. § We know from history that the Apostles and early Christians went from terrified individuals to bold evangelists unafraid of torture and death. According to Reason § Across history Christians have faced persecution and death without fear, even to this day. § The Bible is remarkably reliable for an ancient anthology of assorted letters, poems, and histories. § While reason cannot explain why this is true it can notice the astonishing transformation of lives and attitudes, which Christians attribute to the powerful indwelling of the Holy Spirit.

According to Experience

According to Experience

Soteriology The Study of Salvation

Soteriology The Study of Salvation

What is Salvation?

What is Salvation?

§ Freedom from Sin § Galatians 5: 13 -14 § Citizenship in the Kingdom

§ Freedom from Sin § Galatians 5: 13 -14 § Citizenship in the Kingdom § Philippians 3: 20 § Obedience to the Truth § 1 Peter 1: 22 According to Scripture § New Birth § 1 Peter 1: 3 § Security in Death § 1 Thessalonians 4: 14 § Fruitfulness § Galatians 5: 22 -23 § New Creation § 2 Corinthians 5: 17

§ Christians have always believed that salvation is a total transformation that touches every

§ Christians have always believed that salvation is a total transformation that touches every area of life. It has never been just about “going to heaven. ” § “He who raised Jesus up from the dead will raise us According to Tradition up also – if we do his will, and walk in his commandments, and love what he loved, keeping ourselves from all unrighteousness. ” – Polycarp (69156) § “The tree is made manifest by its fruit. So those who profess themselves to be Christians will be recognized by their conduct. ” – Ignatius (35 -107) § “Grace with the Lord, when once learned and undertaken by us, should never afterward be cancelled by repetition of sin. ” – Tertullian (160 -230)

§ Human beings have been seeking “salvation” in some form or another for our

§ Human beings have been seeking “salvation” in some form or another for our entire history. § We recognize sin as an issue and try desperately to resolve it. § We recognize that good works and spirituality are According to Reason often good ways to cope with sin. § Numerous philosophies, political theories, economic models, therapeutic techniques, and spiritualities have been developed over the centuries to try and “save” humanity. While any of these apart from Christ don’t work what we can see is that we inherently recognize that sin is a problem that needs to be dealt with intentionally and powerfully.

According to Experience

According to Experience

How Are We Saved?

How Are We Saved?

§ Saved by Christ § 2 Timothy 1: 9 -10 § Saved by Faith

§ Saved by Christ § 2 Timothy 1: 9 -10 § Saved by Faith § John 5: 24 According to Scripture § Saved by Grace § Ephesians 2: 8 § Saved by Baptism § 1 Peter 3: 21 -22 § Saved by Works § Revelation 20: 12

§ Christians have always believed that salvation is only achieved on the merits of

§ Christians have always believed that salvation is only achieved on the merits of Christ’s free gift of grace, received in faith during baptism, and demonstrated in good works. § The separation of faith and works only happened in the Reformation, with Martin Luther. According to Tradition § His doctrine of Justification by Faith Alone ruled out any human act as a part of salvation. § The Bible, and the vast tradition, always taught that our response to and living out of God’s free grace is a part of salvation. § Luther’s theology still affects us today. We often separate faith and works (which James is clear is impossible). § We are saved by Christ alone. Without him we wouldn’t have faith or be able to respond to God.

§ History has proven that the human solutions to the problem of evil do

§ History has proven that the human solutions to the problem of evil do not work. According to Reason § While we can learn some things from our attempts to solve the sin issue ourselves, in the end we must recognize that human being are incapable of solving it alone.

According to Experience

According to Experience

Ecclesiology The Study of the Church

Ecclesiology The Study of the Church

What is the Church?

What is the Church?

§ The Body of Christ § 1 Corinthians 12: 27 § The Bride of

§ The Body of Christ § 1 Corinthians 12: 27 § The Bride of Christ § Ephesians 5: 25 -33 § Dwelling Place for God According to Scripture § Ephesians 2: 19 -22 § The Church is One § Ephesians 4: 4 -6 § The Fullness of Christ § Ephesians 1: 22 -23 § A Holy Nation/Royal Priesthood § 1 Peter 2: 9 -10

§ Christians have always believed that the Church is an essential aspect of Christianity.

§ Christians have always believed that the Church is an essential aspect of Christianity. § Christians are called to community. § The Church is seen as an instrument of salvation. According to Tradition § “The Church even now is the kingdom of Christ and the kingdom of heaven. ” – Augustine § “There is no salvation outside the church. ” – Augustine § “And in one, holy, universal, and apostolic Church. ” – Nicene Creed, 381

§ Reason cannot attest to the mystical union of the Church and Christ. §

§ Reason cannot attest to the mystical union of the Church and Christ. § What we can observe is the immense impact Christians have had on history, which is overwhelmingly positive despite popular opinion. § Education According to Reason § Medicine § The Sciences § Humanitarian Efforts § Preservation of Knowledge § Unity § Moral Foundation § While the world often derides Christianity (and religion in general) as being negative, the evidence demonstrates the immensely positive impact Christianity has had on the world.

According to Experience

According to Experience

Sacramental Theology The Study of the Sacraments

Sacramental Theology The Study of the Sacraments

§ Sacramental Theology is a subset of Ecclesiology. § Sacraments have been defined in

§ Sacramental Theology is a subset of Ecclesiology. § Sacraments have been defined in several ways. What is a Sacrament? § § Outward sign of an inward grace. Tangible grace. Visible demonstration of a cosmic reality. Ritual commanded by Christ for a purpose. § Three sacraments…Baptism, Eucharist, and Marriage. § Two are universally recognized (Baptism and Eucharist). § Catholics and Orthodox believe in Seven (Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist, Ordination, Marriage, Penance, Unction. )

What is Baptism?

What is Baptism?

§ Baptism Saves § 1 Peter 3: 21 -22 § Baptism Unites us with

§ Baptism Saves § 1 Peter 3: 21 -22 § Baptism Unites us with Christ According to Scripture § Romans 6: 1 -4 § Baptism is a Response to the Gospel § Acts 2: 38 § Baptism is Commanded by Christ § Matthew 28: 19 -20

§ Christians from the earliest period have held that in baptism we are cleansed

§ Christians from the earliest period have held that in baptism we are cleansed of sin, regenerated, and indwelled by the Holy Spirit. § “They then are brought by us where there is water, According to Tradition and are regenerated in the same manner in which we ourselves are regenerated. ” – Justin Martyr (100 -165) § “It is on this account we baptize…that they may be given the further gifts of sanctification, justice, adoption, and inheritance, that they may be brothers and members of Christ and become dwelling places of the Spirit. ” – John Chrysostom § “We recognize one baptism for the remission of sins. ” – Nicene Creed, 381

According to Reason § Reason cannot explain baptism. It is a mysterious gift from

According to Reason § Reason cannot explain baptism. It is a mysterious gift from God accepted in faith.

According to Experience

According to Experience

What is the Lord’s Supper?

What is the Lord’s Supper?

§ Done in Remembrance § Luke 22: 19 § Body of Christ § Matthew

§ Done in Remembrance § Luke 22: 19 § Body of Christ § Matthew 26: 26 § Blood of Christ § Matthew 26: 27 -28 According to Scripture § True Food and True Drink § John 6: 55 § Proclaims the Lord’s Death § 1 Corinthians 11: 26 § Important to Recognize the Importance § 1 Corinthians 11: 27 -32 § Necessary to Abide in Christ § John 6: 56

§ Christians have always held that somehow in the Lord’s Supper we encounter the

§ Christians have always held that somehow in the Lord’s Supper we encounter the real presence of Christ. § They disagreed on HOW this worked, not the reality of it. § They believed this real presence heals and nourishes the Christian. § “I desire the Bread of God, which is the flesh of Jesus According to Tradition Christ, who was of the seed of David; and for drink I desire his blood, which is love incorruptible. ” – Ignatius of Antioch (110) § “When, therefore, the mixed cup and the baked bread received the Word of God and becomes the Eucharist, the Body of Christ, and from these the substance of our flesh is increased and supported, how can they say that the flesh is not capable of receiving the gift of God, which is eternal life – flesh which is nourished by the body and blood of the Lord…receiving the Word of God, becomes the Eucharist, which is the body and blood of Christ. ” – Irenaeus (140 -202) § The idea that it is just a symbol did not become a thing until the 1600’s, when the reality of miracles began to be questioned.

§ People during the Enlightenment actually attempted to undermine the traditional understanding of the

§ People during the Enlightenment actually attempted to undermine the traditional understanding of the Lord’s Supper using reason. § They claimed that the Lord’s Supper couldn’t possibly be the Body and Blood of Christ. At most they were just symbols to remind us. § This was true because MIRACLES WERE According to Reason IMPOSSIBLE. § This also undermined the importance of church. If they didn’t really have access to Christ’s presence, then who cares? § One of the primary goals of the Enlightenment was to undermine traditional Christianity. § I bring this up because the Churches of Christ were founded during this period and were heavily influenced by its ideals.

According to Experience

According to Experience

What is Marriage?

What is Marriage?

According to Scripture §Ephesians 5: 22 -33

According to Scripture §Ephesians 5: 22 -33

§ Christians have always held that there are two holy paths in life. §

§ Christians have always held that there are two holy paths in life. § Marriage – which demonstrates and proclaims Christ and the Church. § Celibate Singleness – which follows the example of Christ for the sake of the Church. According to Tradition § At different times these have been valued differently. § Early on singleness was more highly respected than marriage. § In more modern times marriage has received more respect. § Marriage has always been defined as one man and one woman.

§ The marriage relationship between men and women is and always has been the

§ The marriage relationship between men and women is and always has been the cornerstone of human society. According to Reason § The family unit is the most basic community. § This is true across time, culture, geography, and religions. § Reason shows us that marriage is a foundational aspect of human society.

According to Experience

According to Experience

Eschatology The Study of Christian Hope

Eschatology The Study of Christian Hope

What is Our Hope?

What is Our Hope?

§ Bodily Resurrection § 1 Corinthians 15 § The Defeat of Evil § Revelation

§ Bodily Resurrection § 1 Corinthians 15 § The Defeat of Evil § Revelation 20: 7 -10 § New Heaven and New Earth § Revelation 21: 1 -7 According to Scripture § Renewal of Creation/Redemption of Our Bodies § Romans 8: 18 -25 § The Kingdom Come § Matthew 6: 10 § The Rule of Christ § Philippians 3: 21 § The Presence of God § Revelation 21: 22 -27

§ Tradition doesn’t have much to expound upon on this. Christians have always believed

§ Tradition doesn’t have much to expound upon on this. Christians have always believed in a renewal of creation, where justice is implemented, the righteous are made new, and we live with God as intended. According to Tradition § The Resurrection of Christ is the sign of what is to become of all those who are in Christ. We will become as he is. He will make our bodies like his. § “Our substance shall receive such qualities as shall, by wonderful transmutation, harmonize with our immortal bodies, so that, as the world itself is renewed to some better thing, it is fitly accommodated to men, themselves renewed in their flesh to some better thing. ” Augustine

§ The idea that our ultimate hope is “going to According to Reason heaven”

§ The idea that our ultimate hope is “going to According to Reason heaven” began during the Enlightenment, where God was conceived as a distant deity who was barely involved in the world. Reality was divided into two parts; the immediate physical plane and the distant spiritual plane, and never shall the two meet. This idea seeped into Christianity. Christian life became a private affair that you lived out in order to escape this world and reach God. § This effectively put faith in the realm of the private sphere, pushing it out of public affairs and the public view.

According to Experience

According to Experience